There are two types of immunodeficiency virus HIV1 and HIV-2, however, it should be borne in mind that at the moment discoveries of scientists are being made for the most part in subgroup M from the HIV-1 group – it is also called Major, and it also makes up 90% of all registered HIV cases. There are nine isolated strains in this group, named alphabetically from A to K, but the research is mainly in the area of B strains, which are most often found in the USA.
At the moment, a mutated HIV, discovered in the Netherlands and circulating for decades, has become quite disturbing. Scientists have noticed that this form remains more prone to survival and causes the reduction of CD4 T immune cells, which leads to a more rapid acquisition of AIDS disease by those infected (Lanese, 2022). This strain also has a higher multiplicity and spreads in the human body more massively and faster, leading to AIDS in only 2-3 years. Called VB, this HIV strain is only one but has been circulating in Europe for a long time.
Like other strains of this disease, the newly discovered HIV damages the immune system, making a person less resistant to disease and lowering the body’s ability to fight infections. The new strain is of the HIV-1 type – this type is found in all countries of the world, while HIV-2 is found only in western Africa. This is because strains like HIV-1 spread faster from person to person and therefore cover the planet widely and mutate faster. Although the latter virus spreads rapidly and is more pathogenic, it does not cause undue concern to immunologists due to the availability of a drug in case of rapid detection.
Lanese, N. (2022). Newfound variant of HIV progresses to AIDS faster and may be more transmissible. LiveScience.