Zambia is a landlocked country in southern Africa, covering 752,611 km2. Zambia had a population density of 16 people per km2, with rural areas having a very low population density. There are almost 70 distinct cultural groups in the country. The main religion in Zambia was Christianity, and the language of administration and education was English. Malaria-related infections accounted for 45 percent of hospitalizations and outpatient department visits in 2004. In 2006, 20 percent of children under the age of five tested positive for malaria parasites, with the majority living in poverty in rural areas (Redditt et al., 2012). 13 percent of people infected with malaria suffered from severe anemia.
After an infected mosquito has bitten a human, a small number of parasites are delivered to the human host, where they rapidly reproduce, eventually leading to tens of billions of parasites in the bloodstream. These parasites induce flu-like solid symptoms that are characterized by weariness, headaches, and muscle aches, with periodic bouts of high, wracking fevers. The infection can become chronic, resulting in anemia and extended bouts of weakness and lassitude. Young children, who have not yet established immunity to malaria, and pregnant women, whose immunity has been weakened by pregnancy, are the most vulnerable people in Zambia, which has a high transmission rate.
The elimination of malaria from Zambia is the goal of a new strategic plan for 2021, which is marked as the year for the eradication of malaria infection. It includes preserving the country’s status as malaria-free and preventing the reintroduction and importation of the disease into regions in which it has been eradicated (Redditt et al., 2012). The following are the primary malaria prevention and management strategies that Zambia has implemented to reduce the impact of the disease. The new changes were the advancement of vector control through indoor residual spraying (IRS) and the possession and utilization of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Malaria case management is conducted through practical diagnostic tests and the usage of potentially life-saving drugs.
The Malaria Community Intervention (MCI) relies on a significant pillar of the country’s national strategy, which is the training of community health workers (CHWs) to screen for, treat, and track malaria in their areas (Redditt et al., 2012). The implementation happened through CHWs providing follow-up care for patients who test positive for malaria by traveling to the patient’s home to test and treat additional members of the patient’s household.
Redditt, Vanessa, ole-MoiYo, K., Rodriguez, W., Rosenberg, J., & Weintraub, R. (2012). Cases in Global Health Delivery: Malaria control in Zambia. Harvard Business Publishing Education.