Step Throat Disease: Molecular Epidemiology

A disease is any form of the abnormal condition which may affect part or whole of an organism. There are four main types of diseases which are physiological, deficiency, hereditary and infectious. Hereditary diseases can be both genetic and non-genetic and can manifest themselves in various ways. Illnesses can also be grouped into communicable and non-communicable. This paper discusses strep throat disease examining the availability of a vaccine, signs, and symptoms, countries prevalent, demographics, transmission, prevention, and its curability.

Streptococcal pharyngitis is a bacterial infection that can affect the throat leading to discomfort. it is common among children, however, it can affect people of all ages and calls for quick treatment when signs and symptoms are visible. If not treated early enough, it can lead to other complications like rheumatic fever and kidney inflammation. Strep throat is caused by a bacterium known as streptococcus pygones also called group A streptococcus.

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Strep throat infection is prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries like Brazil and India. In research done in Brazil among children aged 1-18 and both genders, a percentage of 23.4 tested positive (Nascimento et al., 2020). Sample surveys were done in India also indicated the spread of the infection among people of different ages. 62% were male and 38% were female who was diagnosed with this infection (Abraham and Sistla, 2019). Age ranged from 13 days to 80 years and it was noted that a high number of adults tested positive.

Signs and symptoms include vomiting or nausea especially in young children, rash, fever, headache, body aches, and tender and swollen lymph nodes, especially in the neck region. Some tiny spots which are red on the palate, red and swollen tonsils, pain in the throat that comes rapidly, and pain while swallowing(Leung et al., 2018). There is no vaccine available yet for preventing the infection from getting into the body.

To prevent the disease, various hygienic practices must be followed. Firstly, thorough washing of hands should be a routine activity. Cleaning hands properly using soap and running water for at least 20 seconds kills the bacteria that cause this infection. An alcohol-based hand sanitizer can also serve the function of killing disease-causing bacteria. Covering the mouth when coughing to avoid splashing saliva which may be contaminated to other people. Masks can also be worn so that when sneezing, saliva droplets can be controlled from spreading over to the surrounding human beings.

Avoiding the sharing of personal items, keeping the environment clean and isolated can prevent its spread. Toothbrushes must be kept private and out of the reach of children as they may contain bacteria. The disease is curable by taking antibiotics such as penicillin, amoxicillin, and ibuprofen helps with pain and fever. If untreated, it can be deadly and can lead to scarlet fever. Strep throat can become fatal if the strep bacteria release toxins in multiple organs causing a threatening condition known as streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.

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In conclusion, strep throat is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium upon coming into contact with the contaminated disease. It is common among children but can affect human beings of other ages. If not diagnosed early, it can lead to more severe conditions. Signs include fever, body aches, and swollen lymph nodes. The disease is curable and can be treated by taking antibiotics. However, no vaccine has been developed to curb its spread. To prevent the spread, hygienic conditions, self-isolation, and washing hands with soap and water must be adopted.

References

Abraham, T., & Sistla, S. (2019). Decoding the molecular epidemiology of group A streptococcus – an Indian perspective. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 68(7), 1059-1071. Web.

Leung, T., Hon, K., & Leung, A. (2018). Group A Streptococcus disease in Hong Kong children: an overview. Hong Kong Medical Journal. Web.

Nascimento, I., Pinto, L., Fernandes, V., Romero, I., Oliveira, J., Marcolino, M., & Leite, M. (2020). Clinical characteristics and outcomes among Brazilian patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection: an observational retrospective study. Sao Paulo Medical Journal, 138(6), 490-497. Web.

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