What is the significance of the partnership agreement between the United States and the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan?
The close partnership between the two countries since 2001 was meant to counter threats to global peace and security. In addition, it was to enable Afghan citizens to acquire a safe, democratic, and successful future. Asal Mohamed, one of the respondents argued that this has resulted in the realization of sustainable development in the sectors of security, economic, social, government, and constructive partnerships regionally.
Babur Hussein noted that the agreement is aimed at fighting discrimination between citizens and granting them an opportunity to enjoy constitutional rights sands freedoms. In addition, Afghanistan will uphold women’s participation in national issues, and abolish the Islamic bondage and submission they experience. As noted by Atash Awarang, the agreement supports the operations of the United States military in Afghanistan. The military priority is fighting and dismantling al-Qaeda and other terrorist groups. This is to alleviate the suffering of the Afghans because of terrorism.
Another respondent Azar Badrtia indicated that the agreement was signed after the 9/11 attack that is believed to have been finalized in afghan. The main aim of United States participation is tom to protect its interests and citizens from Islamic terror attacks.
The United States has respect for Afghanistan’s sovereignty. It aims at transforming Afghanistan to ensure that they acquire complete security responsibility. In addition, its military presence in Afghanistan is temporary and for the good of everyone as noted by Behnam.
In an effort to improve security, Behrang argued that the two parties aim at eliminating production, trafficking, and consumption of narcotics in Afghanistan. Narcotics are a threat to national security and lead to the formation of a rogue society. The agreement is part of the plan to stabilize Afghanistan. It is meant to specify the purpose of the United States’ military forces in Afghanistan after 2014. The United States military presence is expected to be reduced as indicated by Belourine, one of the respondents.
Boosah argued that the Afghan people want the United States to put an end to the persistent insecurity they experience from Taliban groups, militias, and criminal bands. Another respondent Dehgan argued that Afghans are facing national anxiety that in 2014 after the United States military withdrawal, the country might plunge into civil war.
Afghan citizens are concerned about the United States’ unpopular actions like night raids and detentions. Sanaa Malik notes that the policy to enforce cooperation between the United States and Afghanistan was an indication of America’s national interest.
What is the role of United States foreign policy in the establishment of America in the Middle East?
The United States national security interests in the Middle East are aimed at ensuring that they have access to the oil-rich region, controlling the region, and limiting the production of weapons of mass destruction as Dehgan notes. Boosah adds that presidents George Bush and Bill Clinton believed that conflict resolution was the tenet of the United States foreign policy in the Middle East. Playing a central conflict resolution in the Middle East was aimed at expanding the Americans’ role in the peace process. This was based on the assumption that the peace process would overshadow the appeal for anti-Americanism in the Middle East.
The use of military force by George bush to control the region was an indication of vested interests apart from the realization of peace as indicated by Belourine. The United States’ foreign policy to ensure the security of American interests and citizens has been costly. Behrang, a respondent argued that leading with regions’ leaders to make peace and use of military force has taken up much of the United States federal government’s resources. In an attempt to create alliances, the United States gives foreign aid to the countries in the Middle East region.
Since the 1st gulf war, the United States has deployed the military to protect oil reserves in Saudi Arabia and the other parts of the Persian Gulf as noted by Asal Mohamed a respondent. His friend Azar Badrtia further notes that the United States has incurred high costs in an effort to fight anti-Americanism among Muslims and Arabs. Deployment of the United States military forces in Saudis Arabia stirred deep hostility between the gulf region and the United States. Atash Awarang argued that this prompted Osama bin laden to focus on recruiting Muslims around the globe to join forces and attack Americans. Sanaa Malik notes that alliances in the Arab nations foster anti-Americanism.
Why are the United States policies, interests, and citizens the main targets for international terrorist attacks?
Terrorism is mainly considered as an international l and foreign policy issue. However, Sanaa Malik argued that in 2001, 63% of terrorist attacks were executed against United States citizens and property as compared to 23% in 1995. His friend Atash Awarang noted that 90% of the attacks against United States citizens and property occurred in Latin America. 178 of them were bombings of the oil pipeline.
Azar Badrtia further indicated that there are Radical Islamic groups that seek to instill economic and political instability in the Middle East. Their aim is to overthrow a foreign regime in Muslim dominated countries. These groups are a threat to United States foreign policy objectives. After Iraq’s declaration that it did not have weapons of mass destruction, Bush’s effort to oust Saddam Hussein’s regime created a rift between the two countries. This makes the united states a target for Iraq’s attacks as indicated by Asal Mohamed, another respondent.
Before 9/11, Boosah argued that almost 500 United States citizens had been killed in attacks carried out by non-united states citizens from 37 foreign countries. He further argued that anti-American terrorism is fueled by the United States military support to other foreign countries which are in conflict with the terrorist groups. Behrang notes that because of its selectivity on who receives military aid, most anti-American terrorism originates from nations that are dependent on United States military support.
Terrorist attacks are used as political instruments to gain control of a certain region and change policies. Belourine indicates that the United States does not go into dialogue with terrorist groups and this makes it a potential target for the attacks. The vast presentation of the United States in other countries in the form of tourists, investments, commercial outlets, and diplomats makes it an easy target. Dehgan notes that terrorists target American interests to challenge the status quo in the world. This is because the United States is the world’s superpower and for this to change, it has to be conquered as noted by Behnam.
What is the influence of oil production to the United States foreign policy towards the Middle East?
The military engagement policy and effort to contain Iran and Iraq is a United States strategy to control access to oil. Atash Awarang, a respondent notes that 10% of the oil used in the United States comes from the gulf region. In an effort to protect the gulf oil and ensuring that Iran and Iraq do not threaten the gulf countries, the Washington oil policy was meant to control the two countries Dehgan notes. During the cold war, the United States’ objective was to ensure gulf oil was not taken over by its competitors. Behnam notes that the United States influences Japan and Europe through its control of the gulf oil.
Dehgan, a respondent notes that despite its huge oil reserves, Saudi Arabia’s foreign and domestic debt rose to $70 billion between 1990 and 1993 as a result of the purchase of arms from the United States.
Washington acts as a guarantor of Saudi oil for Japan and Europe notes Sanaa Malik. This is an indication of United States support of suppression, abuse of human rights, and denial of the Saudi population to participate in making decisions notes Belourine, another respondent,
Boosah adds that the United States consumes too much oil and the country’s policy does not emphasize on developing other energy sources. Asal Mohamed, one of the respondents argued that access to oil explains the need to control the oil-rich Middle East. Babur Hussein In the current oil policy, enforcing a unilateral defense strategy in the Gulf region is expensive. This is aimed at maintaining command over the region’s oil production, adds Azar Badrtia.
What is the motive behind the United States’ support for Israel?
The United States’ support for Israel is fueled by the need to maintain the presence and control the Middle East Azar Badrtia notes. Boosah adds that Israel receives the largest economic and military assistance, accounting for one-fifth of the United States foreign aid budgetary allocation. Atash Awarang, a respondent notes that Israel is the only recipient of American foreign aid that is allowed to utilize the aid out of American soil and is not required to give an account of how the aid allocation is spent.
Asal Mohamed, a respondent argued that the United States allows Israel to get intelligence information that is not accessible to NATO allies. In addition, it does not oppose Israel’s acquisition of destructive nuclear weapons. Babur Hussein noted that the unique partnership between the United States and Israel is meant to counter the threats culminating from the Middle East. Sanaa Malik argued that the United States used Israel to invade the Middle East during the war.
Israel helped in controlling soviet expansion and defeating Soviet allies. Dehgan, a respondent notes that after the 9/11 attack the partnership between the united states and Israel was strengthened by claims that they both faced threats from Arabic and muslin nations as indicated by Belourine, one of the respondents.
Israel is considered an important ally in the world’s efforts to combat terrorism as noted by Behnam. In addition, the hostility of the Arab-Islam nations toward Israel proves that it shares enemies with the United States. Babur Hussein adds that America-Israel partnership is a source of anti-American terrorism that complicates the process of combating war against terrorism.