Aspects of Excretion and Homeostasis

The Endocrine Functions of the Kidney to Regulate BP

The endocrine system has the renin axis which acts as the source of primary defense. The axis prevents the depletion of sodium volume and also hypotension. Moreover, the endocrine system excretes the atrial hormone which is meant to counterpart all activities which involve sodium volume alteration. Inside the organ, there are special cells that measure the blood pressure and adjust accordingly to the amount of the renin hormone secreted.

The Complication of Urinary Tract Obstruction

Urinary tract obstruction, if not managed well, can become secondary calculi, tumors, strictures, or anatomical or even functional abnormalities (Hennessey et al., 2017). The renal calculi apart from causing pain, vomiting, and some blood patches in the urine, leads to other medical complications. These include septicemia and blockage in the urinary tract which leads to pain in the side. When the complication exceeds it leads to renal colic, which causes excruciating pain between the ribs and the hips. Obstruction can lead to the development of hydronephrosis which is entitled to symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pains.

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Risk Factors that Lead to Renal disease

Diabetes and high blood pressure create the highest risk of the development of chronic kidney disease. Diabetes happens when the blood pressure is too high, thus, causing damage to different organs in one’s body including the kidney, blood vessels, nerves, and as well as eyes. However, smoking, obesity, old age, low birth weight, and family genetic predisposition can be the cause of renal disease. Moreover, renal disease is inheritable and that is a risk factor.


Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection that passes through the urinary tract and eventually affects the bladder if not treated (Byron, 2019, p. 212). Pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection of the kidney that results from an advanced UTI. Both UTI and Pyelonephritis are bacterial infections but the contrast occurs through the organs that are affected. Glomerulonephritis is not an infection but is identified as the acute GN, which occurs as a result of the glomerular deposition.


Byron, J. K. (2019). Urinary tract infection. Veterinary Clinics: Small Animal Practice, 49(2), 211-221.

Hennessey, D. B., Kinnear, N. K., Troy, A., Angus, D., Bolton, D. M., & Webb, D. R. (2017). Mini PCNL for renal calculi: Does size matter? BJU International, 119, 39-46.

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Toda, N., Mukoyama, M., Yanagita, M., & Yokoi, H. (2018). CTGF in kidney fibrosis and glomerulonephritis. Inflammation and Regeneration, 38(1), 1-8.

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