Brief Background and History of the Disease
In general, intestinal problems are common in society at different stages of development, but conditions such as constipation are the scourge of the civilized world. Constipation should be very carefully classified as a disease, as the medical associations of different countries conclude that constipation is a symptom of a severe disruption of the gastrointestinal tract. The development of constipation contributes to a sedentary lifestyle, low physical activity, and an unbalanced diet with a lack of raw vegetables, fiber, and water. Sometimes stressful situations experienced by a person on an ongoing basis are attributed to risk factors. Even 30-50 years ago, constipation was not as common as it is now, and at present, the number of people suffering from this condition can reach up to 50% of the planet’s population (Wojtyniak & Szajewska, 2017). Intestinal diseases and symptoms continue to be taboo topics in modern society. People do not want to share this with their friends and relatives and are ashamed of themselves. It is crucial to provide such patients with careful support.
Morphology and Characteristics if a Pathogen
The pathogenesis of constipation is not associated with viruses or bacteria, although some bifidobacteria and lactobacilli may help people suffering from these conditions. For example, the main probiotic microorganisms include lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, propionic acid bacteria, streptococci of the species Streptococcus thermophiles, and bacteria of the genus Lactococcus. The formation of constipation is based on hypotonic, or spastic, intestinal dyskinesia. Importance is attached to the dysfunction of the neuro-receptor apparatus of the intestinal wall, which is responsible for its motor activity. An essential factor leading to the loss of the motor-evacuation properties of the intestine is a violation of the sensitivity of the intestinal wall’s receptors (Wojtyniak & Szajewska, 2017). In patients with chronic constipation, according to colon manometry, the duration of high-amplitude peristaltic contractions is significantly reduced, and the ‘gastrocolytic’ response to food intake is suppressed or absent in all segments of the colon.
The etiology and morphology of constipation are diverse and may affect the mechanical difficulties of passing the path masses in the colon, for example, a developing tumor. Sometimes constipation arises due to the admission of medicines: antidepressants, analgesics, antiepileptic agents, some hypotensive drugs, and antibiotics. The development of constipation contributes to the use of drugs; they enormously increase the time of passing masses by the intestines (Wojtyniak & Szajewska, 2017). Constipation accompanies such diseases as diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, Parkinson’s disease, paralytic syndrome, and multiple sclerosis. Often, constipation arises due to the usual suppression of urges to excretion, which is associated with the pattern of lifestyle and work activity.
Symptoms and Epidemiology
Constipation is a symptom of some severe endocrine system and gastrointestinal tract diseases. Chronic constipation is characterized by frequent flatulence and bloating. Always patients suffering from constipation complain of delayed, obstructed, or systematically insufficient defecation. The number of successful visits to the toilet per week lowers from three to two or one. Signs of constipation are irregular defecation rhythm and frequency; the patient also lacks the feeling of emptying the bowels after defecation. Often there are fecal stones, dryness, and hardness of the masses (Wojtyniak & Szajewska, 2017). With chronic constipation, some patients help to defecate by manipulating the fingers in the anus.
Constipation has such comprehensive epidemiology, which has become a medical and social problem in the modern world. On average, 30-50% of the inhabitants of civilized countries complain about cases of constipation, and then the task of doctors is to prevent the occurrence of chronic states (Wojtyniak & Szajewska, 2017). Almost every person met with constipation cases, although they were situationally caused by certain specific reasons: taking medicines, traveling, or pregnancy. Children also have constipation, but children are easier to help with bifidobacteria and lactobacilli.
At the organism level, constipation does not have essential pathologies; however, this condition dramatically impairs the quality of human life. Constipation is not genetically reflected in the right way, but children can inherit their parents’ lifestyles and tendencies to intestinal diseases, one of which will be constipation. At the tissue level, constipation can significantly affect the soft tissues of the intestine. Dangerous cracks and thinning of tissues can occur, leading to incontinence of gases and feces. At the organ system level, constipation fatally affects the functioning of organs, in particular, the entire gastrointestinal tract. A person may lose appetite, and experience nausea, flatulence, and severe bloating. Often, severe abdominal pain is accompanied by discomfort when performing everyday activities. Constipation does not have a saving effect in the event of gastritis or stomach ulcers. Chronic constipation can exacerbate pelvic floor and lower spine problems. The act of defecation under such conditions puts severe pressure on the entire pelvic region. The intestinal vessels cannot cope with this pressure and burst (Wojtyniak & Szajewska, 2017). With frequent constipation, hemorrhoids can grow, requiring subsequent surgical intervention.
Treatments and Side Effects
Treatment with probiotics during constipation can be shown; however, it has severe limitations. This area is not thoroughly investigated, and most specialists are positive towards the fact that probiotics can provide a positive effect on the treatment of constipation. Probiotics are not so well controlled by pharmacists, which, on the one hand, allows patients to experiment (probiotics are completely safe); on the other hand, the owners of companies use this to enrich this. Among probiotics, Lactobacillus Bulgaricus LB-51 and Natren’s Digesta-Lac are allocated as the most effective when dealing with bloating (Plaza-Diaz et al., 2019). Many probiotics can cause gases but not increase the frequency of defecation. Based on the studied information, it can be said that probiotics will not help with launched constipation but will help those patients who were in the border situation.
Side effects are generally safe when taking probiotics, making them a pleasant and convenient adjunct to treatment. There may be profuse gas eruptions, but the person generally feels better even under such circumstances. In addition to probiotics, people need to take fiber and fresh vegetables and drink plenty of water (Reid, 2019). Patients can mix probiotics with food (pharmacies may sell pre-formulated food supplements) and water.
Constipation is the scourge of modern society, where most people are engaged in labor and lead a sedentary lifestyle. They seriously impact the quality of life and force people to experience shame, discomfort, and everyday physical pain until an excruciating act of defecation occurs. Probiotics have an auxiliary effect in the treatment of constipation but cannot be spelled out as an independent medication or food additive. Probiotics are safe, making it possible to use their abundance in children suffering from constipation. Probiotics restore bacterial balance in the intestines and microflora and normalize intestinal peristalsis. Due to their safety, probiotics can also be appointed by doctors for pregnant women experiencing minor problems with defecation.
Plaza-Diaz, J., Ruiz-Ojeda, F. J., Gil-Campos, M., & Gil, A. (2019). Mechanisms of action of probiotics. Advances in Nutrition, 10(1), 49–66. Web.
Reid, G., Gadir, A. A., & Dhir, R. (2019). Probiotics: Reiterating what they are and what they are not. Frontiers in Microbiology, 10. Web.
Wojtyniak, K., & Szajewska, H. (2017). Systematic review: Probiotics for functional constipation in children. European Journal of Pediatrics, 176(9), 1155–1162. Web.