Research Topic, Aim, and Objectives
Corporate Social Responsibility and Employee Turnover
Corporate social responsibility, or CSR, refers to a business model focused on self-regulation that a company employs in order to be accountable to stakeholders, customers, the public, and itself. Though accountability to the firm itself can suggest responsibility for a company’s employees, workers are not adequately incorporated into the model of corporate citizenship. As a result, issues arise between the company functions, public relations, and opportunities for and treatment of those employed by a firm. Essentially, even the maintenance of a positive image among stakeholders, clients, and the public does not always correlate to employee welfare, satisfaction, and intention to continue working at a firm. CRS is not often observed in relation to employee turnover, but may have a larger influence on the rates at which employees leave working positions than what can be seen.
Employee turnover or employee turnover rates are measurements that allow a company to measure the number of staff that leave a firm in a selected time frame, usually a year. The rate of turnover is usually derived from the percentage that compares all working employees during the time period with those that have left. Similarly, it is vital to pay attention that the rate can be divided into voluntary and involuntary turnover (Sanusi & Johl, 2022). As can be seen from the terms, voluntary turnover refers to employees choosing to leave the company, while involuntary turnover defines temporarily hired employees and their decisions to leave a firm to not contribute to either rates or the whole turnover at the company.
In order to better understand the relationship between CSR and employee turnover, it is vital to recognize the factors that affect turnover. These can often include lack of opportunity for growth, burnout, negative relationship with management, toxic work setting, personal events, competitive offers, termination, or poor work-life balance. Employees are able to maintain a more influential platform in the current time and, therefore, have a higher chance of impacting a firm’s strategy for corporate citizenship.
With more clarity regarding both CRS and employee turnover, this paper aims to observe the factors of CRS that impact voluntary employee turnover by analyzing currently existing academic research. Existing literature suggests that firms that were cited as socially responsible more frequently had reduced turnover and quit rates. Both privately-held and not-for-profit firms were similarly affected. However, much of the current research suggests that firms that maintain improved CSR may see a lower turnover rate as a result of being more susceptible to changes in their corporate image (Yasin, 2021). Similarly, the initial hiring phase may be driven by the CSR of a firm and dictates the turnover rate much later. Additionally, there are implications for the spending with firms with a focus on positive CSR, which often includes reduced labor costs as a result of investing in employee-friendly policies and environments.
The main contributing focal points of CSR in relation to employee retention and decreased turnover are reputation management and the actualization of company values and moral leanings. Both are difficult to quantify, but their correlation has been observed with hiring, retention, and most importantly, a low employee turnover. This could be an extension of firm policies that prioritize employees to be as vital to company operations as other stakeholders such as company owners, investors, the public, and clients. Essentially, CSR can be utilized and often is seen as a psychological force. CSR has a positive relationship with attracting new hires, preventing turnover, and enhancing satisfaction, motivation, company loyalty, and commitment (Ranjan & Yadav, 2018). While the effects of CSR are often realized among employees, there are currently no quantifiable attributes that cause the increase in employee satisfaction and welfare.
As such, it is vital to observe the current literature that can ascertain the factors that contribute to reduced turnover as a result of CSR and to employee well-being and satisfaction by extension. This report would contribute to the already existing body of work by finding the components of CSR and how they directly correlate with employee retention, as high retention directly opposes increased turnover and vice versa. Policies that prioritize employee well-being and CSR strategies that manage reputation and preserve firm values and moral standing have been linked to low turnover. However, the specific changes or concepts that are implemented in the larger strategies remain unidentified.
The following report aims to address the current gap between CSR strategies and improved employee satisfaction, welfare, and reduced turnover. Prior to observing the relationship between CSR and turnover, it is vital to differentiate between different CSR strategies and the intensity of their implementations. Similarly, the true extent to which a company’s values are present in all operations cannot be measured. As such, the report will have to utilize external and tangible measurements of corporate citizenship such as employee reviews, awards related to workplace quality, and voluntary and involuntary turnover rates. Using more qualitative measurements, it is also essential to record the public perceptions of firms through a number of attributes such as interactions with customers, participation in community engagement, and incidents that caused a negative impact on their public image. Specific strategies should also be outlined as their applications may have diverse results.
Similarly, the report will observe a specific form of turnover, voluntary turnover, in order to ascertain low and high rates of employee satisfaction and welfare at a firm. While involuntary turnover may also be relevant, there are additional variables that often contribute to employee termination and, therefore, may not be indicative of the influence of CSR. As such, the report will focus on the voluntary turnover rates of non-temporary employees. Similarly, only firms with prolonged periods of measuring these rates will be selected, such as annual measurements of turnover rates. The impact of CSR will be compared through a number of facets, including CSR-focused policy, public image, interaction with social, economic, and environmental-centered events or actions, industry awards recognizing workplace quality, and employee responses.
Effects that contribute to employee retention and the decrease of turnover as a result of CSR have been cited to be workplace satisfaction, loyalty, commitment, and motivation. The aspects that influence these factors cannot be identified with certainty. It is likely that the reduction of poor work-life balance, burnout, negative relationship in work settings, toxic environments, and lack of growth affect retention. These can all be observed as active changes as a result of SCR-focused policy. However, issues such as competitive offers and personal events are less likely to be targeted by CSR.
While CSR is utilized in every industry and economy, the following study will observe the effects of CSR on job satisfaction and by extension on employee turnover among firms operating within hospitality sectors. These companies usually involve hotels, tourism, and services that target hospitality. This specific sector has been chosen due to its susceptibility to immensely high employee turnover rates. In 2020 alone, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (2022) found that the turnover rate had reached 130.7% in the sector. Such a high rate has been ongoing but was even more adversely affected by the pandemic. Due to the vulnerability of the sector as well as its deeply rooted need to attract customers and investors through an appealing public image, turnover rates in relation to CSR will be observed throughout the hospitality market. Many of the studies used in this report will include not only the integration of CSR and employee turnover but also corporate citizenship and employee satisfaction. As has been mentioned prior, employee satisfaction and contributing factors deeply affect the turnover rate of a company. As such, correlations between employee satisfaction and CSR can be compared to known turnover rates during certain periods and in specific regions. Additionally, the current literature accounts for the unique challenges that arise in the hospitality sector, as well as the influence of the recent pandemic on turnover.
CSR and Effects on Employees
The research topic is relevant to already existing bodies of work as it will address the requirements for future observations, such as the gaps in understanding of CSR or the severity of CSR impact on turnover. This is significant to achieving the objectives of the report, as it outlines the nature of CSR that is specific to the industry and its translation into employee satisfaction, financial profitability, and other improvements. The majority of current research observes the relationship between CSR and financial performance at a level that is in between a broad analysis and micro-inspection. However, portions of studies that recorded CSR effects on a micro-level collected relevant information, particularly in regard to the impact on employees and customers. The study was able to present a concise list of theories and approaches that featured in CSR and had a noticeable impact on employees. These approaches were agency, attitude formation, persuasion, attribution cognitive-affective, expectancy disconfirmation, needs satisfaction, bottom-up spillover, and other theories. Certain theories can be assumed to be more directly relevant to employees, such as the needs satisfaction and bottom spillover theories that address challenges faced by workers.
However, as most existing bodies of work acknowledge, there is no current metric that can concretely ascertain which approaches are most impactful when inserted into CSR. In fact, the work provides a succinct explanation of the current gaps in CSR and employee influence analysis and three related attributes. First, understanding CSR drivers are not entirely understood as the engagement and reaction of employees to certain strategies is often immensely diverse and unquantifiable. Second, the currently incomplete evaluation of CSR drivers directly translates to lower the effectiveness of CSR initiatives (Guzzo et al., 2020). Third, the sole focus on reactions to CSR forgoes the inclusion of additional humanitarian variables on which CSR methods are usually founded. These current gaps in research present a unique problem in quantifying the relationship between CSR and its effects on employees.
One approach to observing the interaction of CSR and employees is by analyzing qualitative data and responses of workers. A quantitative measurement has shown that societal CSR had the highest impact on employees in relation to organizational trust, followed by environmental, product, and internal CSR (Farooq et al., 2019). Overall, the paper demonstrated that CSR had a largely positive influence on the attitude and behaviors of employees. Similarly, it has shown the complexity of CSR as it is fundamentally structured not only on theoretical approaches but also on company dimensions and functions. However, internal CSR, the dimension most closely effective for influencing employee satisfaction, has ranked low, which suggests that gaps between internal policies and CSR exist.
A comparison of the findings suggests that corporate social responsibility directly resulted in a higher volume and valence of online employee reviews. However, with increased CSR engagement, online employee reviews increased in volume and valence as well, but in a different manner (Jang et al., 2022). This study highlights the value of qualitative data in order to discern critical reviews from constructive or supportive feedback and comments. It presents an issue that increased employee engagement does not necessarily facilitate positive CSR growth and creates the need to assess CSR strategies by turnover.
The perception of CSR by employees also had a proportional relationship with their own involvement in CSR activities. This is significant as CSR-led or supported by employees is often reported in combination with all other forms of CSR. CSR involvement has been noted to increase the hedonic and eudaimonic well-being of employees (Guzzo et al., 2022). While this trend of increased CSR leads to improved employee well-being and engagement, no universal research has yet been done to assess the situation definitively throughout the hospitality sector.
CSR and Employee Satisfaction
Job satisfaction as a facet of CSR is a commonly occurring theme, while its formulation in existing policy lacks substantial research. However, specific factors of job satisfaction within the context of CSR have been identified. The fundamental principles related to CSR were discovered to be perceived behavioral integrity by the organization, in-out CAR alignment, the intrinsic CSR attribution of employees, the extrinsic CSR attribution of employees, and affective commitment (Boğan & Sarıışık, 2020). Each area presented a variety of behaviors and manifestations of CSR that were deeply relevant to employee satisfaction. In the perceived behavioral integrity of the organization, the match between hotel policy and practice, delivery on promises, conduct that is based on values, and the assurance of certain actions that employees require contributed to job satisfaction.
In-out CAR alignment reflected congruence between hotel practices for employees and other stakeholders, and that goodwill and consistency is performed among all stakeholders. The employee’s intrinsic CSR attribution reflected actions that presented that hotels were genuinely concerned with social responsibility, met moral obligations, and were active in socially responsible initiatives, especially in a local community. Employee’s extrinsic CSR attribution accounted for CSR behaviors of a firm that were motivated by customer approval, competitiveness, desire to fulfill tax write-offs, publicity, or profits. Affective commitment involves employee statements that express certain emotions such as a wish to continue working at the hotel, relating to problems of the hotel as if they were one’s own, a sense of belonging, and personal meaning. On the other hand, affective commitment also included emotions that revolved around no longer wishing to continue at the hotel, not feeling like a part of a collective, and lacking personal meaning in relation to their current work.
Overall, this report will provide a detailed insight into the particular aspects of CSR that affect job satisfaction and, as some elements suggest, turnover. Within the dimension of affective commitment, the response that recurred most commonly included the desire to continue operating with a selected firm. Additional factors, such as belonging, genuine concern for the firm, engagement in CSR initiatives, and the respect of company policy by the firm contribute both to job satisfaction and, consequently, turnover.
However, there are still certain discrepancies that are highlighted by the study. For instance, the affective commitment revealed that while CSR has the potential to improve workplace satisfaction, it also has the likelihood of decreasing the willingness of employees to stay with the firm or achieve a sense of belonging. Similarly, extrinsic attributes can cause employees to perceive CSR strategies as being motivated solely or primarily by profits, publicity, customer accumulation, or competition within the market. As such, certain components of CSR can have an effect on job satisfaction, and as a result, on employee turnover. Therefore, it is integral for the report to analyze the variation in CSR strategies and their effects on employees. Commonly recurring themes in promoting CSR are often responsible management and sustainability. Domains of CSR were also vital as an extension and included environmental, ethical, legal, social or philanthropic, and financial components. From the perspective of the employees, the legal domain was of particular significance, which included the ability of the firm to facilitate employee operations within the standards of the law, compliance with industry-wide regulations, providing employee benefits, maintaining a legal standard of service and goods, and internal policies to reduce discrimination.
When compared to the objectives, it can be seen that many factors contributing to turnover and job satisfaction can be mitigated or influenced by CSR. A poor work-life balance and burnout fall into the legal domain as a failure to comply with standard work hours or internal policies that allow for adequate breaks. A toxic work environment and poor relationships with management or colleagues is the inability to curb workplace discrimination. Other components that commonly contribute to job dissatisfaction such as lack of professional growth and competitive offers by the financial and social domain, which focus on the support of stakeholders and the welfare of the community in which it operates. As such, the majority of the affirmation attributes described to be major influences of CSR unto job satisfaction directly work against elements that induce employee turnover.
Employee Satisfaction and Turnover
It is vital to relate employee satisfaction to retention and turnover within the hospitality sector in order to gain a clearer perception of CSR and turnover. As mentioned prior, many components that describe an environment that contributes to job satisfaction directly correlate to reduced turnover. A multitude of studies observe the rates of turnover intention as an indicator of effective CSR and job satisfaction, but actual turnover rates are more relevant to the current research. Still, there is merit in observing the gaps in job satisfaction felt by employees that contribute not to direct turnover, but even to the intent of leaving certain workplaces. Thus, additional factors that adversely affect job satisfaction but do not end in turnover can be observed in order to create a more feasible and complete image of CSR.
While CSR affects employee welfare from a number of dimensions, the internal and legal have been identified as the most influential towards the operations and well-being of employees during their time in the firm. As such, internal factors in relation to CSR can be analyzed by observing specific strategies and turnover intention. One study proposes six distinctive features that determine the attractiveness of an organization not only to potential but also to current employees. These factors include an organizational identity, organizational image, corporate reputation, gender diversity programs, diversity management, corporate character image, and corporate social performance. Similarly, the study presents primary outcomes of CSR in the hospitality sector to be organizational commitment, attractiveness, identification, trust, citizenship behavior, reputation, and supervisor ethical leadership. The highlight of human resources attributes such as diversity management and gender diversity programs are of special note as workplace injustice has been cited to be a frequent issue that is affected by a lack of efficient CSR. The same study also cites turnover intention motivators to be workload, emotional exhaustion, cynicism, job stress, age, safety climate, work-family conflict, burnout, and affective commitments. Despite these drawbacks, the study notes a positive correlation between employee retention and internal CSR, which also relies on factors that can be observed on a case-by-case basis, such as personality types.
Another study exemplifies the difference but necessity of both employee retention and reduction of turnover rates. Essentially, CSR strategies that are efficient account for both the retention of current employees through addressing turnover intention and by providing them with additional benefits that do not directly relate to internal company police and social climates. For instance, the issues of personal life events and competitive offers do not signify a lack in internal CSR but still persuade certain employees to leave a company. CSR does not rank high in motivators to remain at a position, coming just below training provided by the firm (Kim et al., 2021). This suggests the current internal CSR throughout the hospitality sector does play a role in retaining employees but serves a minor role when compared to job satisfaction, training, and salaries. However, due to the fact that CSR has a number of effects on the aforementioned factors, its exact reach cannot be quantifiably measured.
CSR tactics that aim to directly limit employee turnover are vital to this report as they aim to identify and mitigate components that contribute to job dissatisfaction. The hospitality industry presents an expectational high turnover rate throughout most firms and currently lacks a concise and cohesive CSR-related explanation. The hospitality sector contains similar motivators for turnover but is also subject to certain unique influences. For instance, compensation, motivation, work environments, job satisfaction, and engagement can allow for a lower rate of turnover (Wong et al., 2019). However, in the case that primary industry-led issues such as long working hours and burnout are not addressed, these facts will not be influential enough to reduce turnover. Similarly, it has been noted that employees in the industry are more likely to preemptively quit in the case that a company is likely to undergo financial or corporate strain rather than experience a future lay-off.
CSR and Turnover
Having identified all necessary overarching themes, it is vital to disclose their exact impact on turnover and their susceptibility to the influence of CSR within the hospitality sector. First, the contribution of CSR to all motivators for employee retention is to be addressed as they directly correlate to employee turnover. The major themes include well-being as a result of burnout and poor life-work balance mitigation, a positive work environment, and opportunities for professional growth. A study that measured quality of working life through the combination of quality of life and job satisfaction found that philanthropic and economic CSR had the greatest impact on employee well-being (Kim et al., 2018). On the other hand, legal and ethical CSR was mostly ineffective.
CSR can dictate relationships within departments as well as among supervisors and employees in the lower spectrum of a firm’s hierarchy. Theoretical CSR aims to address inequalities and assure equal opportunities and options for all employees, at least from the ethical domain. However, studies have shown that the implementation of CSR has not been able to reach such an equilibrium. Within one study, only managerial-level employees were able to recognize the impact of CSR on the basic and growth needs of job satisfaction, while lower-level employees saw little change (Kim et al., 2020). These particular findings highlighted the interaction of CSR and hierarchical mechanisms currently observed in many companies. As such, it allows for an insight into the divide between theoretical and practical CSR in terms of forming a positive work environment and decreasing workplace inequality.
Turnover is especially high in the hospitality sector and, as such, the development of careers in distinct firms is an occurrence that is limited to individuals already performing in managerial positions (Wong et al., 2021). Current research lacks decisive evidence that discusses the relationship between CSR and professional growth and opportunities provided to employees. The combination of these findings suggests that these factors are often cited as being integral to motivating turnover rates and are vital in fully comprehending the relationship between CSR and turnover. As such, further expansion into this theme is necessary before making a final deduction regarding CSR and employee turnover rates. Employee growth and hierarchy are fragments of turnover motivators that have appeared in a number of works and suggest a significant influence on job satisfaction and employee retention.
A multitude of gaps exists in the modern implementation of CSR in the hospitality sector. First, there is a lack of consensus on what defines true CSR, especially with certain sectors being more prone to placing emphasis on certain parts of the concept over others. The already minimal research of CSR in hospitality is further obstructed by the varied and sometimes incomparable interpretations of CSR. Present studies are more prone to measuring CSR due to the diversity in its definition, but the information that is truly relevant is the transformation of the theoretical CSR approach to a practical effect and the consequences that follow (Iyer & Jarvis, 2019). This is especially relevant to employee-focused CSR, which is referred to more rarely than CSR concepts that impact customers or a firm’s financial performance. It is also suggested that future research and the approach of this report focus on the domains of CSR. A conclusive list of these domains includes instrumental, social and political, ethical, legal, and environmental domains. The works that were reviewed suggest that CSR follows an identical categorization of domains. However, when certain works are contrasted, it can be seen that there are also disparities, such as the inclusion of either the social or political domain, but not both at once. Current gaps can be seen in the analysis of employee-focused CSR, the significance of the varied domains of CSR, and the measurement of external factors that contribute to turnover.
Methodology, Methods, and Ethical Considerations
The following report will utilize qualitative research in the form of secondary data analysis or a literature review. While certain components of the research cannot rely on currently existing research within the area of CSR and turnover, such as opportunities for professional growth among employees, survey-driven research cannot be conducted in a way that is able to determine all motivators for turnover and practiced CSR in the hospitality sector. As such, it will be vital to gather recent research regarding the hospitality sector and CSR that impacts turnover rates. Particular notions that can work as variables include the multifaceted definitions of CSR, the comparison of retention and turnover, and the numerous domains of CSR. Because each of these can sway the report’s conclusive findings, it is vital that their impact is observed and recorded (Khalil & Muneenam, 2021). The qualitative nature of CSR and the gathering of information that is usually reliant on employee feedback and academic analysis allows for adequate literature review processes.
First, CSR varies in not only definition but also in what firm owners, stakeholders, employees, and even researchers deem to be adequate implementation. As such, all literature that is reviewed can be organized by its definition of CSR. While many themes overlap, a variety of interpretations can suggest a completely different implementation of CSR. By extensions, this can influence further results and the feedback of employees. As such, the effects of CSR can only be accurately observed when CSR definitions and their practical operations are identical. This cannot be ascertained without doubt, and as such, CSR can be measured through its focus, which can be customer, stakeholder, community, or employee-focused (Jones et al., 2019). While the focus of CSR on employees is central to the report, additional CSR strategies can similarly impact employees and should be integrated into the study.
Second, turnover, retention, and job satisfaction are all different concepts that are deeply related. Changes in job satisfaction cause proportional changes in retention and turnover. As such, the review of literature that is focused on both retention and turnover can be relevant to the report. Similarly, voluntary turnover is not frequently mentioned in current works though this is the only form of turnover that is relevant to the study. The ability to diversify the research to not focus singularly on turnover can allow the report to find the relationship between CSR and employee growth opportunities that are currently lacking in the sector. The turnover intention may hold relevance but is not comparable with actual turnover rates and is, therefore, absent from the academic papers selected for this report.
The diversity in the domains of CSR also suggests that a qualitative literature review is the most effective research methodology for this topic. Often, social and political CSR is segregated, but it is also often presented as the same domain. As such, it is vital for the report to distinguish why certain facets of CSR can be administered as either social or political. Similarly, it is essential to analyze the arguments that present them as an identical domain. It would be helpful to come to a conclusive position on whether the social and political domains can be distinguished in a meaningful way. Other domains such as ethical and philanthropic also overlap but may be prone to extensive similarities. As such, the qualitative study can account for the variety of domains that are present in CSR strategies.
As mentioned prior, the report will conduct secondary data analysis. Secondary data analysis or archival studies refer to the use and assessment of already existing research. Because the majority of the works that will be consulted will include surveys, feedback from employees, and policy analysis, the study will be qualitative. These will be collected from relevant works that can be found in databases such as ResearchGate, Emerald, and ScienceDirect. Additionally, empirical data can be collected from national organizations that acquire information regarding labor statistics. This particular research method was selected for three particular reasons, which are accessibility, large bodies of work, and diverse environments in which the studies have been conducted.
Currently, existing works that focus on CSR and employee turnover rates are widely available through online resources. As such, this report will consult search engines such as Google Scholar in order to find time and topic-relevant materials. Specific distributors such as Emerald, Sage, and Taylor & Francis Online, in particular, present numerous works on CSR that provide original insights. It is vital that all documentation is available digitally. Similarly, most of these works include CSR practices throughout a variety of countries, though the majority of the focus is on hospitality sectors in Asian and African nations (Kaur et al., 2022). Overall, accessibility is important as the qualitative nature of the research can cause lacking evidence or indecisive conclusions regarding certain effects of CSR. The combination of the easy accessibility of digital journals and the wide variety of relevant work makes the archival study an effective research method.
The large body of work is also especially important to the conduct of secondary data analysis. The entire concept of CSR presents a number of layers and facets that must be observed in their entirety in order to fully understand the impact of strategies on employee behavior and turnover. This includes the many domains of CSR, which are usually cited as the ethical, legal, social, political, philanthropic, and instrumental domains. Additionally, CSR can be customer, stakeholder, or employee-focused. Both the domains and the focus of CSR have the potential to influence the theories that are chosen and thereby impact employee welfare within a firm. Particular policy choices are also reflective of the domain of CSR and the approaches a firm chooses to utilize. As such, a higher sample number of works is likely to increase the chances of finding a more accurate portrayal of the relationship between CSR and employee turnover. Many works have overlapping themes or even measurements that are closely related, such as the measure of the quality of working life or employee job satisfaction and engagement with CSR initiatives. The significant amount of academic research can also indicate the variables that influence CSR and employee exchanges that are not based on location, specific business functions, or other company-centered attributes.
A secondary data analysis using qualitative research is especially relevant to the research conducted in the hospitality sector. While certain regions are more frequently present in CSR-focused works, there is also great socio-economic, cultural, and demographic diversity in the existing literature. Current CSR strategies and their implementation lack a universal unit of measurement and a process by which consequences are weighed. As such, any attempt to define these parameters must account for the diversity of variables that affect CSR in all business settings, but especially in the hospitality sector. Similarly, employee turnover rates and motivators vary between professions, cultures, and economic levels.
Because the report can be segmented into two major parts, the collection of relevant works and the analysis of acquired information, ethical considerations are also split into two facets. First, during the acquisition of currently existing academic research, it is vital to find works that follow certain ethical guidelines. There are nine major factors that allow for a piece of academic literature to be considered ethically conducted and relevant to the report. First, in the event that a study has conducted a survey or any other form of an experimental process, it is vital that participants were in no way subjected to harm. Second, the dignity of the participants was respected and preserved throughout the study. Third, full consent was obtained prior to any research or surveying. Fourth, the privacy of the research participants was prioritized and assured. Fifth, research data is protected by confidentiality and anonymity to an adequate level. This requires the protection of the identities of firms, employees, and other involved parties.
Sixth, the aims and objectives of the report must be consistent throughout the work, with no exaggerations prior to surveying, data analysis, or experimental processes. Seventh, conflicts of interests, such as affiliations or sources of funding, must be made clear and visible. Eighth, all communications related to the research must be documented and interpreted with honesty and transparency. Ninth, misleading or misrepresented primary or secondary data and biases are to be avoided. It will be possible to find whether academic works are able to meet these standards by observing their participant selection process, methodologies, and responses to ethical concerns. Studies that are unable to meet all the aforementioned requirements can cause detriment to the report and should not be utilized in the secondary analysis. It is vital for studies to meet these standards for CSR-focused research, as a higher ability to exclude inadequate data or obstacles is likely to lead to better conclusive evidence regarding CSR and turnover rates.
The second portion of the ethical consideration is concerned with the integration of existing data that is informed by cultural, socio-economic, and other variables in a satisfying manner. The hospitality sector is prone to high turnover due to the implemented business models and the nature of the industry, but it can also be affected by specific cultural norms, welfare levels of employees, and other potential factors such as age and gender factors (Saha et al., 2019). As such, it is vital that the interpretation of acquired data is guided by the culture-specific factors provided in the study. CSR is also very likely to be informed by local and communal norms and expectations, which is a defining attribute in the relationship between CSR and turnover. Essentially, it is vital that the report does not make biased or generalized conclusions based on existing findings. Margins of uncertainty are to be expected due to the diverse variables that cultural, socio-economic, and other factors pose for the development of CSR in the sector and its impact on employee behavior. These are the major ethical considerations that should be implemented in the secondary data analysis of the report in order to avoid false assumptions and inadequate use of data.
Research Schedule and Plan
The report aims to understand the specific factors of CSR that affect employee turnover rates. It is essential to collect relevant data and analyze it in a way that is considerate of the diverse facets of both CSR and motivators for turnover. As such, the plan of work can be outlined in five distinct stages, which are data collection, data filtration, empirical analysis, qualitative analysis, and the presentation of findings. It is vital to utilize the strengths of online academic databases by finding as many relevant papers as possible. As mentioned prior, this includes CSR, turnover, job satisfaction, and employee behavior-focused research. Because all of these concepts relate closely to CSR and turnover, they must all be considered in the overall research. Following this, it is vital that relevant works are contrasted with other works that share features. This will include filtering works by CSR domains, research methodologies, and factors that are measured in relation to CSR, usually job satisfaction, engagement, perception, and turnover.
CSR-focused works vary between empirical surveys, qualitative feedback, and secondary data analysis. As such, this requires the report to segregate empirical findings from data that is qualitative. Because of their differences, they cannot be compared but are equally valuable to the overall involvement of CSR in turnover. As such, empirical data can be contrasted in areas that are relevant. For instance, if domain definitions coincide between studies, it can be possible to contrast empirical findings. On the other hand, qualitative research can also be compared in the case that definitions and key terms are also adequately related. This has been done in prior studies, such as the equating of varied responses with the same intentions in research that focused on employee feedback. The presentation of results must be cohesive but cannot unreasonably merge facets that are not inherently identical. For instance, CSR domains cannot be conflated into one representation of CSR and must be presented separately.
The following stages guide the milestones of the report. The first milestone will require the acquisition of relevant work. This milestone can be met when relevant databases, such as Emerald, Sage, and Taylor & Francis Online, have been thoroughly searched. Following this, the second milestone must create and administer an effective inclusion and exclusion guideline. For instance, works that include turnover intention as a measurement, do not meet the ethical considerations or include any other facet other than job satisfaction, turnover, or perception may be excluded. Works should be tagged with meaningful metadata such as the domains, the focus of measurement attributes, and qualitative or quantitative data. The third milestone will be focused on comparing empirical data. It is vital to discover quantitative measurements when possible in order to attain a better understanding of CSR on a global scale with evidence. The fourth milestone will repeat the process of the third but with consideration for the unique characteristics of qualitative data. The fifth milestone must create a plan to interpret and adequately present the large body of information without merging data that is not directly related either through factors such as CSR domains or measurement attributes of job satisfaction, turnover, and perception.
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