Evidence-Based Practice: Decision-Making for Patient Care


Evidence-based practice (EBP) involves decision-making practices and informing the actions of the most beneficial outcomes in different settings. It focuses on combining critical thinking and using readily available evidence. This approach, therefore, is vital to the people practitioners and individuals since it affects the management decisions on the working environment and the individual well-being of people from all walks of life in an organization. Therefore, this report aims to explain Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) and establish the importance of its use in all industries. For many years EBP has been used in medical sciences to establish the credibility of decision-making for patient care. This report discusses the various aspects of EBP and how it is used to aid critical thinking and set a precedent for decision-making for positive outcomes.


(AC 1.1) Evaluate the concept of EBP and how it can be applied to decision-making in people’s practice

Evidence-Based Practice Concept

Evidence-based practice (EBP) involves making decisions based on ‘effective thinking’ and sound evidence and decisions that can be justified to others. In addition, it also includes making use of strategies such as critical thinking and analysis in decision-making. EBP entails forming judgments and conclusions.

Evidence is any information or facts which support/contradict a hypothesis or assumptions. Therefore, while basing the decisions, an individual should consider the personal experiences and other factors which generally affect the whole organization and all other employees. To make a decision, people should consider four vital sources of evidence. The essential resources that establish credibility and support the decision-making process for EBP include scientific literature, organizational data, professional judgment, and stakeholders (Barends & Rousseau, 2018). These resources include actual data and people’s knowledge.

EBP is crucial for assisting with well-informed judgment and decision-making. This is valid for several HR-related topics, including performance management, resource allocation, change management, and more. If EBP is combined with critical thinking, it can effectively guide decision-making across a variety of different HR responsibilities. It is crucial that HR professionals use this strategy because of the impact of managerial actions on many workers’ working lives and well-being (Fowler, 2001). It is asserted in the literature that EBP can be used in a variety of work-related contexts, including resource allocation, performance management, talent management, and employee relations. For instance, while deciding whether to choose a candidate for resource mobilization, recruiters may consider both quantitative data (the candidate’s score) and qualitative data (communication during the interview). The concept can be applied to the decision-making in people’s practice in various instances – for example, when forming judgements and avoiding bias, developing and testing arguments. Similarly, during performance reviews, an employee’s achievements are evaluated against various criteria, like income made per client, etc. (Fowler, 2001). These measurements can be used as quantitative information, while managerial feedback can be used as qualitative information. Practitioners can thus make various decisions in many sectors of the organization utilizing data.

Decision-Making Models

The main decision-making models include:

  • The Rational Decision-Making Process: This process involves careful and methodical steps. The steps include the following:
    • Step 1: Identify the Problem: Failure to identify a given problem in advance can lead to the whole process failing from succeeding.
    • Step 2: Establish Decision Criteria: In this stage, a decision maker should determine the most relevant thing in making decisions.
    • Step 3: Weigh Decision Criteria: In this step, a decision maker needs to weigh the criteria used to create the right priority for the decision.
    • Step 4: Generate Alternatives: After an issue has been identified and relevant information gathered, a decision maker needs to list all possible options for the decision.
    • Step 5: Evaluate Alternatives: This step involves the evaluation of the possible alternatives and choosing the most desirable option for decision-making.
    • Step 6: Select the Best Alternative: This final step involves carefully evaluating all the alternatives and choosing a solution at the end.

Evaluation of the Rational Approach

When defining rational decision-making, there should be careful consideration of the strict adherence to the process and logical and data-driven procedure in the steps followed.

The rational model is crucial in making big decisions with various criteria that affect large groups of people. As a limitation, when the manager must take into account and then weigh all of the options, this process is occasionally complicated by a lack of knowledge. Time restrictions might also be an issue.

Prospect Model/Theory

This model entails having a complex analysis of how individuals make decisions when risks are involved. The early developers of this model, Daniel Kahneman, and Amos Tversky demonstrated using a variety of experiments that most individuals alter this approach based on their subjective judgments in different environments.

Evaluation of the Prospect Model

This approach focuses on the general gain from the given consideration. For instance, many individuals think differently about the financial loss risks than they do while considering situations where financial gains are available. As a limitation, evaluating a collection of parameter values is challenging, and adding heterogeneity factors related to perceived parameter values can be problematic.

(AC 1.2) Evaluate a range of analysis tools and methods, including how they can be applied to diagnose organizational issues, challenges, and opportunities

Method Used in People’s Practice

An essential technique frequently used in organizations to keep track of possibilities, challenges, and issues both present and future is the observational survey. Internal surveys help to better understand how workers feel about different roles and rules. Such surveys are frequently carried out by organization management to have a regular grasp of the organizational environment. Given that many departments report varying strengths and weaknesses in their own fields of competence, this technique is a highly helpful method.

Surveys are a crucial tool for gathering precise numerical data that represents the situation and enables a quantitative study of the organizational opportunities. Additionally, the greatest ways to spot issues with employee relationships are through feedback and assessment questionnaires (Brookmire, 2007). However, poorly executed surveys may actually foster a pessimistic work environment. If they do not see a result, or at least no confirmation of their responses, employees may start to assume that their bosses do not regard them as much. The observational survey aids in the diagnosis of possible organizational issues in this way.

Analysis Tool

The Ansoff Matrix is a two-by-two structure used by management teams and the analytics community to plan and assess expansion projects. It is sometimes referred to as the Product/Market Expansion Grid. This tool specifically aids stakeholders in conceptualizing the degree of risk connected to various development plans. This matrix has emerged as a crucial paradigm for identifying organizational possibilities and difficulties (Armstrong, 2022). To promote more accurate estimations of the elements influencing business growth, the Ansoff Matrix is frequently used in conjunction with other tools for business and industry research. Effective growth driver modeling is a crucial component of thorough due diligence since it may have a significant influence on evaluating of organizational issues (Swartz, 2018). As a disadvantage of the tool, its complexity can be mentioned. To properly employ the model, a lot of time and resources are needed. Using this approach, leadership should also be examined, and leadership inefficiency should be monitored.

AC (1.3) Explain the main principles of critical thinking and describe how these principles might apply to individual and work colleagues’ ideas to assist objective and rational debate

Definition of Critical Thinking

In addition to using the available evidence, critical thinking is applied to ensure decision accuracy. Many ideas underpin critical thinking, and it’s crucial to use these same principles to make wise decisions. When it comes to professionals, critical thinking has three essential components. The first crucial element is to critique other people’s concepts, viewpoints, and arguments (Swartz, 2018). To avoid unfounded and arbitrary opinions influencing judgment is crucial. The second key idea is to think about how these arguments are put together and how people arrive at the viewpoints they express to others (Armstrong, 2022). Checking to see if critical thinking techniques are being applied is the third crucial concept. As an illustration, it is crucial to take a step back during a debate to examine the issue by gathering and evaluating as much information as you can. In a different scenario, it is critical to consider a colleague’s ideas while working together and to be open to criticism and a cautious, objective assessment (Bonde & Firenze, 2013). This will assist objective and rational debate. Following is a discussion of some significant critical thinking principles and how they relate to human practitioners:

Validity of evidence

To get relevant evidence and act, information gathering is crucial. Because it is difficult to make sound decisions without information, this is the most crucial fundamental. This can be applied to individual and group ideas to encourage unbiased discussion, as information serves as the foundation for each new decision (Swartz, 2018). To enable critical thinking principle in the practical field, triangulating and testing hypotheses is one of the best examples. It is not necessary to accept the coworkers opinions at face value, which will link colleague’s ideas, resulting in an objective debate.

Questioning and checking validity of sources

It is crucial that practitioners hey become fully immersed in the circumstance and comprehend the underlying source of the issue. Research is a crucial concept since it fosters critical thinking and aids in evaluating the numerous pieces of knowledge acquired during the process (Armstrong, 2022). This is applicable to both personal beliefs and those of coworkers because circumstances may not be as they seem on the surface. In practical example, maintaining linguistic clarity and separating facts from views is crucial when debating about your own ideas. Ensuring this in one’s opinion will lead objective and rational debate.

Awareness of bias

Generalization frequently results in bias and might limit the capacity for critical thought. When managing personnel, HR professionals should avoid drawing assumptions. This can be applied to specific concepts, as overgeneralizing practitioners risk choosing the wrong course of action (Armstrong, 2022). In practice, if the team performs poorly, the company can opt to reduce the annual bonus due to the team’s collectively poor performance (Bonde & Firenze, 2013). One team member might have performed especially well, in which case they would have been denied rewards.

AC (1.4) Assess how different ethical perspectives can influence decision-making

Ethical Perspectives

These involve theories of ethics such as utilitarianism, deontology/Kantianism, communitarianism, and altruism. In addition, it includes ethical values such as democracy, fairness, honesty, equality; ethics and religion; ethics and business; examples of ethical dilemmas and outcomes.

Ethics and Ethical Decisions

In everyday life, individuals make decisions on both right and wrong. Therefore, ethics is concerned with a holistic view of individual life. Ethics are behavioral standards that help individuals decide how best to act in various situations. Ethical decisions recognize individual and organizational decisions on the best strategy undertaken.

Ethical Theory

There are three types of ethical theory: consequentialist, non-consequentialist, and agent-centered theories.

Consequentialist Theories

These are theories that state whether an action is good or bad depending on its outcomes. Through these theories, actions that bring more benefits than harm are considered good, while those that cause more harm than good are treated as bad actions. They include:

  • The Utilitarian Approach: this theory argues that the best life is one that has less pain and minimal distress. Utilitarianism is an approach to making ethical decisions based on the consequences of large groups of individuals (Date et al., 2022). It evaluates both the good and bad actions and conforms with people’s feelings that the good actions are necessarily a result of the best strategies which provide the least harm to an individual.
  • Egoistic approach: these are self-interest ethics where an individual uses the utilitarian calculation to get the greatest good for himself (Briner, 2019).
  • Common Good Approach: this approach argues that society is guided by the people’s general will to produce the best action for the community. This approach also involves understanding common societal aspects, emphasizing both individual and societal respect and compassion for other people (Rousseau, 2020).

Non-consequentialist Theories

These are theories according to which the wrongness or rightness of any act or rule depends on something other than the goodness or the badness of action. They include:

  • The duty-based Approach: it focuses on the importance of an individual will and the intention to their ethical decision-making. Therefore, the focus of this approach is on personal duty and the obligation to perform their actions (Wright & Ulrich, 2017).
  • Rights Approach: it states that the best ethical decision is the one that protects the rights of individuals who are affected by the specific action (Date et al., 2022). These decisions can therefore be either human actions or non-human actions.
  • Fairness/Justice Approach: this approach holds that all men are free and should be treated fairly and equally (Severson, 2019). The just approach is combined with other approaches to apply across all human perspectives.

Agent-centered Theories

These theories divide between the emphasis on the roles of intentions that constitute the moral importance of agency and an emphasis on the actions of the agents. They commonly include:

  • The Virtue Approach: this approach argues that ethical actions should all be considered with the human virtues. The virtue approach is combined with whole individual life and not personal actions. They combine the characters and personal life of an individual (Briner, 2019).
  • The Feminist Approach: these approaches supplement the virtue approaches by emphasizing feminist traditions and the importance of women’s experience and other marginalized groups to deliver on ethical decisions (Date et al., 2022).

How The Ethical Perspectives Influence Decision Making

The common frameworks of ethical decisions include consequentialism, duty, and virtue. The consequentialist framework focuses on the future effects of individuals’ courses of action and considers how people are affected directly or indirectly. On the other hand, the duty framework focuses on people’s duties and individual obligations in each situation..

Advantages and Disadvantages of Consequentialist Framework

This framework focuses on action results in a pragmatic view since it helps in circumstances involving many people and benefits society. However, the framework is limited since it is impossible to predict the consequences of a given action, whether they will harm or be suitable to the people (Date et al., 2022). In addition, people react differently to each situation, and therefore they may not be judged by their results of actions.

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Duty Approach

This framework focuses on the creation of systems of rules which meet the expectations of everybody. Therefore, when the action is morally right, it applies to every individual’s life in given situations. The framework also focuses on individuals’ moral rules and duties regardless of the action outcome, which makes individuals follow moral values.

Advantages And Disadvantages of Virtue Framework

This framework is helpful in situations that require the personal character traits of individuals, and it also allows for a wide range of behaviors in promoting decision-making. It also considers all parts of personal experiences and their roles in delivering ethical decisions as it considers all emotions, thoughts, and experiences that influence a character’s development (Date et al., 2022). However, the framework is limited since it makes it difficult to resolve conflicts and disputes.

AC (2.3) Explain a range of approaches practitioners could take to identify possible solutions to a specific issue relating to people’s practice

Human practitioners can employ a variety of techniques to find potential answers to issues pertaining to their field of work. The management of line managers in this situation may be a special issue with human resources procedures. Significant issues can also include poor staff relations and a rise in employee turnover. The following methods can be utilized to find management problem-solving solutions:

Rational approach

This is one of the typical methods that use several phases. There are seven steps in this process: defining the issue or question, determining a potential cause, generating ideas for solutions, selecting a course of action, planning its execution, carrying it out, and assessing the result (Van Aken and Berends, 2018). Therefore, this logical method can be applied if the issue involves a rise in personnel turnover.

Collaborative approach

With this approach, many people are involved in the process of problem-solving. Those who may be impacted by potential solutions, for instance, should be included in the brainstorming process (Gifford, 2016). As a result, it is crucial to get feedback from various stakeholders. For instance, a collaborative approach will encourage feedback and suggestions from line managers, employees, and other stakeholders if the issue is rising employee turnover (Van Aken and Berends, 2018). The collaborative approach will then look at whether there was an issue with employee engagement, rewards, or other issues.

Problem-Solving approach

This approach is used to understand better the challenges faced by human beings and develop the necessary solutions. This approach empowers individuals to develop critical, innovative ideas by overcoming the old ways of thinking. These techniques are applicable in all fields of individual work; hence the organizations develop the necessary methods to assist them in handling the challenges better (Bonde & Firenze, 2013). Therefore, people practitioners need to develop key strategies, which are multi-step processes that solve many problems in both workplaces and individual livelihoods (Rousseau, 2020). To achieve these approaches, the practitioners need to identify steps that range from problem definition, cause identification, selection of operations, creation of proper planning, execution of plans, and evaluation of the available solutions.

AC (3.1) Appraise one approach an organization can take to measure financial and non-financial performance

Measurements Of Financial and Non-financial Performance: The common approaches used in measuring both financial performances include revenue, gross and net profit, cash flow, and return on investment. In addition, the non-financial performance is measured using productivity, key performance indicators (KPIs), service level agreements, balanced scorecards or similar performance management tools, stakeholder benefits and feedback, customer satisfaction, legal compliance, compliance with environmental standards, and sector ratings (Kaplan, 2009).

The Balanced Scorecard (BSC)

BSC is the best approach for measuring financial and non-financial performance since it includes both the qualitative and quantitative criteria for the previous period and combines the company’s short-term and long-term goals. This technique is often used throughout the company in all the departments to evaluate the performance of top executives and managerial-level employees.

The financial measures include the return of assets and growth in the firm’s revenue, while non-financial measures provide customer satisfaction and standards based on defect reduction and improved time wastage. The balanced scorecard has four primary evaluation criteria: financial, customer, internal, and learning perspectives (Kaplan, 2009). These categories, however, are modified according to the company’s needs and objectives (Paul & Elder, 2008). The BSC metric uses quantitative factors based on the organizational financial performance and qualitative factors, which focus on the non-financial information from the various departments of the company production.

Table 3: The Four Key BSC Categories

Financial Perspective
These metrics vary depending on the company types and levels, and they involve the assessment of the critical financial parameter. From the economic perspective, the professionals use indices such as return on investment, return on asset, and net revenue growth rates (Randell & Toplis, 2014).
Internal Corporate Perspective
The internal perspectives require the company to monitor its internal controls and assess them to ensure they meet its goals and objectives. To achieve this perspective, an organization uses measures such as the number of defects produced in the process, reduced machine time, efficiency and effectiveness in transactions (Wright & Ulrich, 2017).
Customer Perspectives
Customer perspective is estimated based on approaches such as the level of customer satisfaction, the number of repeated customers, the number of customer referrals, and the level of share of the market (Houghton & Spence, 2016).
Learning and Growth perspective
The learning perspective is a means of assessing how best the employees and the management are working towards increasing the company and helping their staff to provide their performance in the organization (Laguna et al., 2018).

Positive Values Of BSC

It brings a structure to an organizational strategy: through BSC, various departments may have their way of measuring performance based on what they consider important in terms of metrics. Therefore, it gives a common room for everyone in the organization to measure their success.

It makes easy communication in the organization: through BSC, communication across various team members in the organizational departments is made easier when everyone speaks the same language (Randell & Toplis, 2014). Moreover, it connects individual employees to organizational goals: through the BSC, the employees focus on the prize in terms of the goals and objectives (Wright & Ulrich, 2017). Therefore, the BSC adds value by helping employees to find purpose in the organization and keeping them engaged in their areas of duty.

Negative Values Of BSC

BSC must be tailored to the organization: this technique is supposed to provide a framework from which it works. However, it must be customized to every organization using this system. This can therefore take time since they cannot be copied directly in every aspect of an organization (Houghton & Spence, 2016). For its effectiveness and efficiency, the technique must be implemented from the bottom to the top of an organization. The approach might get complicated since the BSC framework takes time and dedication to understand. In addition, resources are required for its implementation, and this can be complicated during the implementation process.

AC (3.4) Explain how various people practices add value to an organization and identify a range of methods that might be used to measure the impact of a range of people practices

Impact And Value of People Practices

These involve concepts and definitions of impact and value and how people’s practice creates value. The impact includes both short-term and long-term, positive, and negative, and direct and indirect impacts. The key varieties of people practices include learning need analysis, creating employee talents, developing individual employee policies, analyzing people data, and managing grievances (Van Aken and Berends, 2018). In addition, the people practice also include recruitment of people. Implementation of these practices assists employees in performing their duties and achieving the overall organizational output (Briner, 2019).

Models Of Evaluation

These models include determining evaluation scope and criteria, types of information, and evidence for evaluation and evaluation tools such as staff satisfaction surveys, absence data, and the well-being of employees in an organization (Boyce, 2021). Some practices are collaborated into individual specialization areas, while others are implemented across all individual life, whether they offer a general or particular outcome.

People Practice Standards

The CIPD people practice standards are essential since they assist in understanding the various levels of practices available in an organizational setup (CIPD, 2022). These standards include foundation, associate, chartered member, and chartered fellow levels. At the foundation level, the critical consideration consists of the employee lifecycle and how they are positioned to achieve their outcome. The foundation level also includes policies and regulations relevant to the work and how the organizations assess the skills and capabilities of the employees (Van Aken and Berends, 2018). At the foundation level, individual capabilities and expectations on the job are diversified.

At the associate level, the fundamental practices include factors impacting the overall performance of workers and their areas of duty. These factors involve overall workforce planning and auditing of capability and skills used to evaluate the performance of employees. At the chartered member level, the range of people practices is used to design policies in an integrated manner to assist the employees in aligning themselves with the organizational needs and objectives (Boyce, 2021). At the chartered fellow level, the people practices include the range of specialization and their integration to create a whole set of standards in an organization and monitor quality performance across the entire set up of a company.

Reasons For Measuring People Practices

The main reasoning for measuring people’s practices includes checking and ensuring that objectives are being achieved, providing a people’s practice contribution, justifying spending on people’s practice, and continuously improving people’s activities. In addition, these practices are measured to identify further needs, identify gaps, and enable informed business decisions.

Methods Of Measuring People Practices

The main methods of measuring people’s practices include cost-benefit analysis, evaluation, validation, ROI, and ROE. The cost-benefit analysis assesses and evaluates the revenue against the impact of the costs on the decisions undertaken in an organization (Boyce, 2021). Evaluation and validation of practices ensure that all the relevant activities done in an organization are analyzed and their effect considered when making decisions. The ROI and ROE focus on the financial impact of taking key decisions in a firm and how each action affects the overall performance of the organization (Fowler, 2001). Therefore, understanding the people’s practices in an organization assists the company in achieving its set goals and objectives and increasing performance since they understand the individual employee’s needs and align them with the desires of an organization.

Data Analysis and Review

AC (2.1) Interpret analytical data using appropriate analysis tools and methods

Table 1: The Costings of Recruitment

Data of Labor Turnovers Across Three Departments Over Five years
Year Total Number of Employees who quit (Year Ending) Recruitment Cost (In British Pounds) Total Cost to Recruit for Year Ending
2016 64 2065 132160
2017 74 2065 152810
2018 122 2065 251930
2019 108 3012 325296
2020 153 3012 460836
Total 1323032

From the table above, most employees quit their jobs in 2020 as compared to any other year. In addition, the recruitment cost increased from 2065 pounds in 2018 to 3012 British pounds in 2019. Hence, the costs of recruitment were highest in 2020, and the total costs of recruiting new staff for the five years was 1,323,032 British pounds.

Table 2: The Turnover Per Year as A Percentage of The Total Number of Employees in Each Department

Data of Labor Turnovers Across Three Departments Over Five years
Year Turnover per year as % of the total number of workers (Administration) Turnover per year as % of the total number of workers (Drivers) Turnover per year as % of the total number of workers (Production)
2016 12.50% 14.89% 10.13%
2017 6.25% 12.77% 14.03%
2018 25.00% 22.70% 21.30%
2019 37.50% 11.35% 20.78%
2020 28.13% 22.70% 29.09%

Table 3: The Overall Costings Per Year Across Each of The Three Departments

Year Administration Drivers Production
2016 £8260 £43365 £80535
2017 £4130 £37170 £111510
2018 £16520 £66080 £169330
2019 £36144 £48192 £240960
2020 £27108 £96384 £337344

Most employees left jobs in the administration department in 2019 with 37.5%, while the total number of employees who quit their positions in the driving department was highest in 2018 and 2020 with 22.7%. In the production department, most employees quit their jobs in 2020, with 29.09% of the total turnover realized in the same year.

AC (2.2) Review relevant evidence to identify key insights into a people practice issue

Percentage Turnover of Workers from Three Departments
Figure 1: Percentage Turnover of Workers from Three Departments

Low pay is a significant concern in the department that needs to be considered. Limited rewards and incentives might be regarded as the second most common reason for staff turnover in the manufacturing division. As a result of these two criteria, the HRM reward function in the company is underperforming because both the basic wage and the rewards and incentives are low. The fact that they left to pursue another career is the third most significant reason given by the department’s staff. 10% of respondents cited a lack of flexibility as a cause for leaving, which was also emphasized as a significant factor. The fact that 59 employees claimed the manager was challenging to deal with because he was aggressive reflects poor management. As a result, the following significant subjects can be understood in the context of the production department:

  • Topic 1: Poor remuneration structure (low base salary, rewards, and incentives)
  • Topic 2: Lack of scheduling flexibility and anti-social work hours
  • Topic 3: Aggressive Supervision (Bad Line Manager Training)

AC (3.2) Scrutinize key systems and data used to inform people practice in relation to measures of work and people performance calculations

To measure the work and employee performance in an organization, different systems can be applied, which include the following:

  • Quantitative data: these can be done by using reports, graphical rating scales, charts, tables, review papers, and presentations that relate to employee performance calculations. In addition, using a 360-degree feedback system also considers the feedback and opinions of employees based on their performances across their departmental areas.
  • Qualitative data: these systems entail using self-evaluation techniques on staff members using the goals and necessary output level. Employee performance is assessed using a self-evaluation approach based on efficiency.
  • Organization data: these are datasets that are related to specific HR/L&D/OD activities such as availability of reward, recruitment, compliance, financial, L&D, and OD-related data. In addition, the organizational data is available using “checklists,” which are based on either ‘yes ‘or ‘no’ responses (Fowler, 2001). The checklists, therefore, evaluate the performance of employees by identifying the needs and gaps available before adjusting them to ensure performance in the company.
  • HR systems: the human resource can implement action strategies such as Management by Objectives (MBO) system, which focuses on results and processes that link managers and employees in an organization and jointly determine the overall outcome (Randell & Toplis, 2014). The system aligns the individual performance with the organizational vision and objectives before evaluating performance. The HR system is crucial for an organization’s development and helps in assessing performance.
  • LMS systems: this is a software application that assists the management in administering, documenting, tracking, automating and delivery of key learning and development programs. These systems contribute to the largest segment of the learning systems, and they are designed to identify gaps in training and to learn through using analytical reporting and data. They are effective in managing and delivering all content types. This can assist an organization in measuring work performance and enhancing staff development.

AC (3.3) Collate key findings for stakeholders from people practice activities and initiatives

Collation Of Key Findings

Reasons For Employee Turnover in Organization No. %
Poor pay 96 13.46%
Limited reward incentives 92 12.90%
To pursue another career 85 11.92%
The role did not allow flexible working 71 9.96%
The manager was aggressive and difficult to work with 59 8.27%
Work was boring or monotonous 57 7.99%
Working hours were unsocial 40 5.61%
Conflict amongst fellow employees 38 5.33%
Limited opportunity to enhance career 28 3.93%
To further/higher education 27 3.79%
Care responsibilities 26 3.65%
Targets set by their line manager were unachievable 20 2.81%
The working environment was not conducive to well-being 16 2.24%
Ill health 15 2.10%
Limited opportunity to develop 14 1.96%
Leaving the area 8 1.12%
Unforeseen life change 8 1.12%
Wanted to retire early 7 0.98%
Travel difficulties 5 0.70%
Emigrating to another country 1 0.14%

Key Reasons for Leaving

Most of the employees from both the payroll and production departments left jobs between 2016 and 2018 due to poor pay (13.46%), limited reward incentives (12.90%), and pursuing other careers (11.92%). These issues can interrupt organization’s development and lead to serious repercussions on the global market (Houghton and Spence, 2016). These problems regularly affect most companies, and the management must identify them earlier before developing and implementing plans to solve them. Therefore, the organization needs to improve its weak internal process to ensure that the employees and all the resources are utilized effectively (Armstrong, 2022).

AC (2.4) Make at least three recommendations to reduce employee turnover based on your analysis

  • Recommendation 1: Ensuring competitive wages, salaries, and incentives.

This guarantees that workers receive compensation and benefits on par with those of rivals. As a result, it stops employees from quitting the company and joining a rival business. On the other hand, this indicator may be significantly impacted by changes in the economy and labor market (Houghton & Spence, 2016). Therefore, it would be required to frequently examine wage rates.

There will be huge financial costs that must be incurred. For this policy to be effective, the company would need to keep its wage rates competitive with those of its rivals. The solution in this situation is to offer performance-based prizes as well as regular base salary increases (for instance, a raise at the end of every year).

  • Recommendation 2: Improving work-life balance and establishing flexible working hours.

This guarantees worker satisfaction. When workers have enough downtime, they are more productive because they are more concentrated at work. However, this frequently causes employees to adopt casual attitudes. Working from home and other flexible conditions can sometimes result in inadequate management oversight of employees. Employees who have flexible working hours frequently outperform their financial expectations and earn more money (Wright & Ulrich, 2017). Employees can be given the option of working remotely for a predetermined number of days as a workaround, with or without their presence in the office. Additionally, it’s critical to follow the guidelines for giving holidays and setting work hours.

  • Recommendation 3: Effective employee engagement

Management can maintain a close watch on the issues and difficulties that employees encounter by interacting with them. Additionally, it sends a good message about how management feels about its workers. However, employee engagement policies could not be sufficient and not be in line with the difficulties that are currently being encountered. Consequently, a thorough survey must be done initially. Effective employee engagement has a positive financial impact on the business since it increases productivity (Gifford, 2016). Line managers could work with human practitioners and engage in frequent interactions with staff to improve employee motivation and reward.


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­­­­­­­­Please tick whether you are submitting a draft or your summative assessment:
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Date: 24 July 2022

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Date: 06/08/22

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Part1–Assessment Criteria
Provide rationale for judgements against each assessment criterion and identify areas for development.
1.1 Evaluate the concept of evidence-based practice including how it can be applied to decision-making in people practice.
1.2 Evaluate a range of analysis tools and methods including how they can be applied to diagnose organizational issues, challenges, and opportunities.
1.3 Explain the principles of critical thinking including how you apply these to your own and others’ ideas.
1.4 Assess how different ethical perspectives can influence decision making.
2.3 Explain a range of decision-making processes to identify potential solutions to a specific people practice issue.
3.1 Appraise different ways organisations measure financial and non-financial performance.
3.4 Measure the impact and value of people practice using a variety of methods.
Part 2–Assessment Criteria
Provide rationale for judgements against each assessment criterion and identify areas for development.
2.1 Interpret analytical data using appropriate analysis tools and methods.
2.2 Review relevant evidence to identify key insights into a people practice issue.
3.2 Scrutinise key systems and data used to inform people practice in relation to measures of work and people performance calculations.
3.3 Collate key findings for stakeholders from people practice activities and initiatives.
2.4 Provide a rationale for your decision based on evaluation of the benefits, risks, and financial implications of potential solutions.

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