Management of Asthma Overview

Asthma is one of the most prevalent respiratory system disorders caused by exposure to viral infection during infancy and contact with certain irritants and allergens, such as mold spores, pollen, pet dander, dust mites, or cockroach waste particles. These symptoms interfere with an individual’s work, sleep, and other activities. However, some studies have found that asthma can be a hereditary medical condition (Dharmage et al., 2019). It is a common chronic disease that can have many public health consequences for adults and children, including mortality in severe cases. In children and adolescents, asthma is more prevalent, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Due to the disease’s adverse effects on an individual’s life and work, coupled with the consistent burden it imposes on the health system, it is essential to understand how to prevent and treat this condition.

The first step to fighting asthma is through prevention, and it is essential to understand its causes and risk factors to avoid them when possible. The main causes and risk factors of this respiratory condition have been narrowed down to allergens, pollutants, and irritants (Dharmage et al., 2019). The simplest preventive measure is to identify asthma triggers and make deliberate efforts to avoid them. This includes staying away from allergens, avoiding any type of smoke, preventing colds, and ensuring the home is allergy-proof. For children, parents need to offer appropriate guidance on the best ways to guard themselves against this chronic condition because it is more prevalent in childhood and adolescence (Ferrante & La Grutta, 2018). Additionally, an asthma attack can be prevented by getting a flu shot because the flu virus increases the disease’s complications. Immunotherapy allergy shots can also help reduce allergy symptoms which can worsen one’s asthma situation. Therefore, prevention is the first step toward fighting this chronic condition, and these measures can be helpful.

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Moreover, to reduce the incidence of this chronic condition, it is essential to seek medical attention. The mainstay treatment has been the inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), which help prevent asthma symptoms by reducing airway inflammation. Another category of drugs that lessens airway bronchoconstriction is short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs). This medication causes the airway smooth muscles to relax. However, for children, Tesse et al. (2018) suggest controller and reliever medications, which should be administered in low doses. These are the most widely accepted treatments for asthma globally, but the treatment decisions should be critically made depending on the age and severity of the condition.

The success of the fight against asthma significantly depends on the patients’ adherence to medication or therapy. In most cases, clients use the medications only when they feel the symptoms and avoid them when there are no signs, thinking it is unnecessary. Additionally, some patients prefer to use reliever medications in the event that symptoms worsen, resulting in the overuse of short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs) (Papi et al., 2020). Nevertheless, effective asthma management has been hindered by controversies and barriers surrounding its pharmacological treatment. The use of imaging has enabled the understanding of the pathophysiology and management of this chronic condition. For example, computed tomography (CT) has made it possible to reveal how the airways and lung parenchyma are (King et al., 2019). Such technological advancements have helped the research and management of asthma across ages.

In conclusion, asthma is a common global health concern among children and adults. The main causes of this chronic condition include allergens, pollutants, and irritants. A crucial way to prevent the development of the disease is to avoid the triggers mentioned above. Moreover, getting flu vaccinations and ensuring homes are free of allergens are also practical ways of preventing this condition. The most common treatments for asthma aim to relieve the symptoms or reduce airway bronchoconstriction and inflammation, and they differ in adults and children. Although there are perceived controversies in managing the disease, patients need to adhere to the medication to ensure success in fighting it.

References

Dharmage, S. C., Perret, J. L., & Custovic, A. (2019). Epidemiology of asthma in children and adults. Frontiers in Pediatrics, 7, 1-15. Web.

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Ferrante, G., & La Grutta, S. (2018). The burden of pediatric asthma. Frontiers in Pediatrics, 6, 1-7. Web.

King, G. G., Farrow, C. E., & Chapman, D. G. (2019). Dismantling the pathophysiology of asthma using imaging. European Respiratory Review, 28(152), 1-15. Web.

Papi, A., Blasi, F., Canonica, G. W., Morandi, L., Richeldi, L., & Rossi, A. (2020). Treatment strategies for asthma: Reshaping the concept of asthma management. Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology, 16(1). 1-11. Web.

Tesse, R., Borrelli, G., Mongelli, G., Mastrorilli, V., & Cardinale, F. (2018). Treating pediatric asthma according to guidelines. Frontiers in Pediatrics, 6, 1-7. Web.

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