Nowadays, obesity is considered one of the most common medical conditions. Individual unhealthy habits and the overall change in lifestyle in the developing world are only some of the reasons leading to excess weight. This paper aims to analyze the problem of obesity and its medical consequences through the example of Mr. C.’s health history. The analysis of his medical condition will demonstrate how excess weight affects various health aspects, focusing on the condition of kidneys, and discuss possible solutions and health promotion practices.
First, it is necessary to present and evaluate the medical information of the patient. Mr. C. is a 32-year-old single obese male working at a catalog telephone center. He claims that he has been overweight since childhood, gaining 100 pounds during the last two or three years, and reports sleep apnea and high blood pressure. His complaints include shortness of breath during physical activity, swollen ankles, and pruritus during the last six months. Objective data demonstrate high body mass index (height: 68 inches; weight: 134.5 kg), high blood pressure (172/98), an increased heart rate (88) and respiratory rate (26), and 3+ pitting bilateral edema of feet and ankles. The patient has a high level of fasting blood glucose (146 mg/dL) and total cholesterol (250 mg/dL). His triglycerides (312 mg/dL), serum creatinine (1.8 mg/dL), and BUN (32 mg/dl) are high, while his HDL (30 mg/dL) is lower than normal. The evaluation demonstrates that Mr. C.’s vitals are not within the normal range.
According to the objective and subjective data presented above, Mr. C. may face the following obesity-associated risks. First, the patient’s increased heart rate, shortness of breath, apnea, and high blood pressure may be the symptoms of developing cardiovascular diseases, which are common among patients with obesity (Karpman, 2020). Moreover, excess weight is often associated with diabetes, which is reflected in an increased fasting blood glucose and abnormal cholesterol level, as well as pruritus (Harris, 2019). All mentioned signs and a sedentary lifestyle may contribute to the development of chronic kidney disease (Harris, 2019). Finally, the patient’s fast weight gain demonstrates a developing metabolic syndrome. According to Bagchi and Nair (2018), bariatric surgery reduces cardiovascular risks and improves metabolism. Since the patient’s obesity is accompanied by significant deterioration, surgical intervention can be necessary. With regard to the body mass index of the patient and his associated health issues, bariatric surgery can be an appropriate solution.
It is possible to identify the following health problems from the analysis of the patient’s functional health patterns. Firstly, a significant increase in weight, low HDL cholesterol, high triglycerides and blood glucose, and hypertension are the symptoms of metabolic syndrome (Craft et al., 2018). Secondly, considering the patient’s decreased physical activity and sedentary job, it is possible to suggest that the patient is likely to develop muscle weakness and fatigue. Thirdly, obesity and nutritional disorders lead to kidney-related deteriorations, which, in turn, may decrease levels of sex steroids and negatively affect reproductive function (Craft et al., 2018). Fourthly, in terms of sleep health patterns, Mr. C.’s apnea may lead to sleep deprivation, tiredness during the day, and other deteriorations. Finally, since the patient is observing continuous weight gain and emerging health problems, self-perception issues, resulting in a high level of stress and anxiety, are likely to emerge. Therefore, comprehensive therapy is needed to prevent the presented problems.
The patient’s obesity and associated health issues may lead to the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This condition is the last (fifth) stage of chronic kidney disease, during which kidneys gradually cease functioning normally (from 90% of functioning at the first stage to less than 15%) (Harris, 2019). Some of the factors contributing to the development of the disease include diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, smoking and alcohol abuse, and lack of physical exercise. In order to prevent the deterioration of renal status, Mr. C. should be informed about multiple risk factors. According to Harris (2019), one of the most efficient practices of ESRD prevention is lifestyle modification. Therefore, it is necessary to raise the awareness of the patient about the connection between unhealthy habits and insufficient physical activity and the condition of kidneys. Together with timely and regular screening, these preventive measures are likely to avert the development of the disease.
Besides medical intervention as a way to treat ESRD, there are nonacute resources available to patients. For example, medical devices, such as wearable sensors, are likely to contribute to monitoring a patient’s health condition and maintaining healthy behavior. People with ESRD receiving treatment can also be provided with free non-emergency transportation, reducing their expenses. A patient can also choose hospice care in order to facilitate treatment. Moreover, a variety of support groups can be beneficial during this life-changing treatment. Finally, patients going through ESRD treatment, including dialysis, are able to return to employment as long as their medical condition is satisfactory. This multidisciplinary approach combining medical and social care is believed to be the most effective since it positively influences both the health and psychological condition of the patient. Therefore, the combination of medical help, lifestyle change, and the creation of comfortable living conditions are effective interdisciplinary methods of nonacute care.
The present case study demonstrated health deteriorations associated with obesity, including diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risks, among others. Moreover, the paper focused on chronic kidney disease (in particular, ESRD), its causes, and preventive measures. It is possible to conclude that obesity and ESRD can be caused by multiple risk factors. Therefore, comprehensive health promotion, including a healthy lifestyle and timely medical examination, can avert the development of these medical conditions.
Bagchi, D., & Nair, S. (Eds.). (2018). Nutritional and therapeutic interventions for diabetes and metabolic syndrome (2nd ed.). Academic Press.
Craft, J., Gordon, C., Huether, S.E., McCance, K.L., & Brashers, V.L. (2018). Understanding pathophysiology ANZ (3rd ed.). Elsevier.
Harris, R.E. (2019). Epidemiology of chronic disease: Global perspectives (2nd ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Karpman, H.L. (2020). The new science of fighting silent heart disease: Causes, diagnoses, prevention, and treatments. Rowman & Littlefield.