This paper describes the concept of double socialization of women presented by the German sociologist Regina Becker-Schmidt. While working on this concept, Becker-Schmidt aimed to “theorize the relation between gender and socialization as well as the discrimination and resistance of women” (Knasmüller et al., 2018, p. 44). Becker-Schmidt’s concept is based on the Marxist and critical theories, yet it primarily criticizes the term “socialization” used in both theories (Knasmüller et al., 2018). Becker-Schmidt states that the theories mentioned above failed to determine the significance of private housework for society (Knasmüller et al., 2018). In many respects, the concept of double socialization can be considered a feminist interpretation of Marxist and critical theories, exposing the psychological and social impact of the gendered division on women (Knasmüller et al., 2018). In addition, Becker-Schmidt discusses the ideological nature of social relations where one gender rules over another (Knasmüller et al., 2018). Overall, the German sociologist addresses the socialization challenges that women have had to face throughout history because of gender discrimination or sexism.
The concept of double socialization of women also analyzes the conditions of women’s lives from a psychological perspective. Becker-Schmidt reveals the reflection of working conditions in women’s psychology, examining the experiences of women who managed work, children care, and housework (Knasmüller et al., 2018). According to the German sociologist, the women’s burden is exceptionally time-consuming, and they have to live under psychological pressure while trying to fulfill the requirements established by society (Knasmüller et al., 2018). Everything mentioned above made Becker-Schmidt come to a specific conclusion: women “are subject to ‘double socialization'” as they have to partake in two completely different types of work (Knasmüller et al., 2018, p. 45). On the whole, Becker-Schmidt believes that the “sexist” concepts have made women experience double socialization because of the gender discrimination distinctive for society.
Knasmüller, F. et al. (2018). ‘Double Socialization of Women’, Krisis, (2), pp. 44-46.