The Type 2 Diabetes: Erikson’s Self-Awareness Model


Diabetes is a type of medical condition whereby glucose starts to buildup in the human bloodstream. The insulin hormone is responsible for moving glucose from the bloodstream to a human being’s body tissues. In type 2 diabetes, the body cells do not respond effectively to the insulin hormone, leading to a continuous increase of blood sugar in the body (Chatterjee, Khunti & Davies, 2017). Since the insulin has low activities of bringing glucose to the body cells, the body counter reacts to seek energy sources from muscles and other body organs. Increased sugar levels in the body proceed to a state where a person starts to have circulatory disorders, low immune system, and nerve system problems. Therefore, it is crucial to undertake studies that involve psychosocial theory to understand how relevant is type 2 diabetes patients to Erikson’s theory which focuses on establishing the relationship between type 2 disease and the aging process. Erikson’s theory insists that the social environment, together with biological maturation instances, produces a crisis that must be resolved without which a settled mind state is not attained.

Health Conditions

An individual struggling with this type of health condition suffers from being thirst, a feeling to pass urine at all times, and is always tired. Some specialists argue that type 2 diabetes is better than gestational and type 1 diabetes; however, that is not the case. Type 2 diabetes patients can manage this medical condition through oral medication. Additionally, Erikson’s theory effectively incorporates psychosocial strategies to use simple lifestyle tweaks to manage the disease while living a normal life. However, the disorder can have longtime consequences, which might be occasionally experienced all along the lifetime. Type 2 diabetes can cause severe nerve damage, as in the feet’s case (Roden & Shulman, 2019). It is possible that if patients have sores and calluses in the feet, they may not feel the pain. If energy imbalance is chronic, a mechanism related to inflammatory speeds up this abnormality of lacking sensation in the feet (Roden & Shulman, 2019). Therefore, the patient should seek specialized treatment from doctors who can analyze and establish the current sensations-related effects.

Type 2 diabetes patients need to undertake a microalbumin test after every one year to check the levels of proteins present in urine to establish the kidney’s health status. Patients who lack enough insulin end up suffering from type 2 diabetes, and in the process, they start experiencing kidney problems. Therefore, visiting a doctor each year can help determine the disease’s extent (Perry, Ruggiano, Shtompel & Hassevoort, 2015)). Consequently, the patients should be well cared for since they face a heart failure threat. Therefore, kidney disease, high blood pressure, diabetic ketoacidosis, stroke, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic non-ketotic syndrome, neuropathy, eye injury, slow wound healing are specific complications of type 2 diabetes.

Nursing Theory

It is essential to question the validity of Erikson’s theory and how it can benefit a type 2 diabetes patient. Erik Erikson is a well-known psychoanalyst and psychologist at the same time who is best known for his Stages in Psychosocial Development theory (Perry et al., 2015). Sigmund Freud’s psychosexual theory inspired Erikson’s phases of psychosocial progress. Erikson claimed that unique but different personalities emerge at different periods of life due to social experiences and relationships. Erikson invented an eight-stage model which explains psychosocial development. He argued that trust and mistrust, initiative, and guilt are the center stages of thriving with type 2 disease. From the time an individual realizes that they have this medical complication, the first step is to understand that the condition may or may not allow him to live a normal life (Perry et al., 2015). The ability to accept specific changes to a patient’s daily routine serves as the first step to healing. However, recovering from type 2 diabetes is impossible; some scientists claim that it is possible to reverse the disorder.

Dimensions of Wellness

To provide a holistic treatment, primary care physicians have developed wellness programs to help type 2 diabetes patients get along well. Research indicates that 86% of the total patients with diabetes undergo a mentally disturbed state (Stoewen, 2017). To curb this issue of depression and ensure holistic health, physicians have wellness dimensions that include environmental setting, occupational, financial, emotional, social, physical, intellectual, and spiritual involvement (Stoewen, 2017). They focus on providing a complete structure of health rather than physical health. The wellness dimensions give type 2 diabetes patients a purpose in life and motivate them to be mentally healthy as they are actively involved in their career objectives. Therefore, each patient should focus on a well-balanced diet and apply regular physical exercises to live a healthy life full of purpose (Stoewen, 2017). Seeking spiritual guidance has also proved to be quite useful when instilling the confidence of such patients. Occasional interactions with friends and relatives provide hope and a sense of belonging to type 2 diabetes patients.


Nevertheless, having type 2 diabetes is not a death sentence but a life challenge that has to be tackled with a well-organized approach. The inability of a body to produce enough insulin should not be a life limit. A patient is likely to have a smooth transition to accept the disorder if he/she implements Erikson’s self-awareness model. Therefore, it is crucial to monitor diabetes patients closely while providing mental support.


Chatterjee, S., Khunti, K., & Davies, M. J. (2017). Type 2 diabetes. The Lancet, 389(10085), 2239-2251.

Perry, T. E., Ruggiano, N., Shtompel, N., & Hassevoort, L. (2015). Applying Erikson’s wisdom to self-management practices of older adults: Findings from two field studies. Research on Aging, 37(3), 253-274.

Roden, M., & Shulman, G. I. (2019). The integrative biology of type 2 diabetes. Nature, 576(7785), 51-60.

Stoewen, D. L. (2017). Dimensions of wellness: Change your habits, change your life. The Canadian Veterinary Journal, 58(8), 861-862.

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