The article primarily focuses on the pathophysiological aspect of heart failures and electrolyte imbalances. The researchers suggest that such abnormalities in these elements, alongside acid-based disruptions, lead to congestive heart failure (Urso et al., 2015). The disturbances can be categorized into three main ones, such as hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, and hyponatremia. The latter one causes a cascade of events that lead to low levels of sodium and increase the likelihood of heart failure through an increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and angiotensin 2 (Urso et al., 2015). They initiate renal vasoconstriction and increased water intake and thirst, which results in hyponatremia and edema (Urso et al., 2015).
In case of hypokalemia, there is an elevation of catecholamines and renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system’s active components as well as diuretics, which cause vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction, and arrhythmias (Urso et al., 2015). However, hypomagnesemia occurs due to lower intestinal absorption, increased renal loss of magnesium, and shift of intracellular Mg (Urso et al., 2015). The article is related to pathophysiology because it assesses the relationship between physiological abnormalities and diseases. The study is relevant since heart failure is one of the most common causes of cardiovascular complications.
Urso, C., Brucculeri, S., & Caimi, G. (2015). Acid–base and electrolyte abnormalities in heart failure: Pathophysiology and implications. Heart Failure Reviews, 20(4), 493-503.