Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin obtained from food, special additives, or synthesized in human skin under the influence of UV rays. Vitamin D has an extensive range of favorable features and benefits. For example, it especially and significantly has a positive effect on the organism, increasing resistance to infectious diseases and normalizing metabolism. Moreover, a dose of vitamin D, including that obtained with the help of special additives, advances the strength and power of skeletal muscle tissue by supplementing the sensitivity of calcium-binding areas in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Consequently, this procedure determines the most excellent training efficiency, intensity, and productivity. Vitamin D supplementation has a direct and indirect ergogenic effect at the same time on physical readiness indicators and the effectiveness of exercises.
Vitamin D is of particular importance for the functioning of muscles and increasing the body’s overall efficiency. In addition, this substance effectively maintains immunity, as it helps the organism fight various pathogens. Up-to-date and proven literature also shows an increase in the amount of VDR in muscles and a decrease in the likelihood of bone fracture through supplements (Książek, Zagrodna and Słowińska-Lisowska, 2019, p. 3). Unfortunately, people do not always contribute to getting enough sunlight in the modern lifestyle. Controlling vitamin D levels with supplements in the body is essential for maintaining health and fitness. Sometimes even athletes who train all the time outdoors do not receive sufficient exposure to sunlight and have, accordingly, vitamin D deficiency. The actual data revealed that these supplements are considered number 1 for many athletes, without which they cannot do without in full (Wiciński et al., 2019, p. 3). Taking vitamin D supplements increases the initial concentrations of 25 (OH)D, by approximately 45%, while solar exposure is 85%. Hence, taking these active additives is especially important for practical training in athletes and those engaged in physical activity.
For instance, numerous studies indicate positive outcomes of the effect of vitamin D supplements on a person’s muscle strength and physical energy, especially for those suffering from a deficiency of this substance. In particular, in connection with this aspect, scientists note improved sports results, achievements, and a reduction in the risk of injury, bruises, and other wounds (Abrams, Feldman, and Safran 2018, p. 282). In general, only after at least four months of taking vitamin D, it is possible to improve the height of the jump and increase the isometric strength (Książek, Zagrodna and Słowińska-Lisowska, 2019, p. 5). In the randomized placebo-controlled study, a group of testees who received the supplements demonstrated excellent results associated with high jumping, running at speed, and showing strength (Abrams, Feldman, and Safran 2018, p. 282). Accordingly, vitamin D deficiency leads to an increased risk of injury and oxidative stress.
Hence, the lack of this substance negatively affects muscle strength and performance, both in young people and in older and older people. Increasing the level of 25 (OH) greatly increases the power and muscle mass, as well as the endurance of the athlete. Therefore, scientists have found a positive correlation between improving the musculoskeletal system and vitamin intake (Wiciński et al., 2019, p. 3). The results of the scientists show increased vertical jump strength, left-hand grip, and improved overall work of the lower limbs during extension (Wiciński et al., 2019, p. 3). Vitamin D improves the activity of muscles and musculature due to interaction with cellular receptors.
However, some researchers are still arguing about how and to what extent vitamin D supplements affect the results and achievements in exercise performance. In contrast, Carswell et al. (2018, p. 2555) partially agree with their “colleagues” and claim that obtaining vitamin D through supplements is directly related to endurance, durability, and tempering, but not to power and strength. One of the investigates also did not demonstrate a significant effect of supplements on muscle strength, for instance, in racers and football players (Książek, Zagrodna and Słowińska-Lisowska, 2019, p. 5). Therefore, these facts and details suggest that vitamin D supplements affect training quality and effectiveness associated with endurance, perseverance, and speed.
Summarizing the above, it should be stated that additional substances containing vitamin D have a significant impact on the quality, effectiveness, and good performance during physical activity, as well as performing special exercises and training. Vitamin D takes part in the formation of bones, the functioning of muscle mass, the nervous system, and the maintenance of the body’s overall health. Thus, the level of this vitamin is an excellent matter for any athlete and individual who is fond of physical activity and training.
Abrams, G. D., Feldman, D., and Safran, M. R. (2018) ‘Effects of vitamin D on skeletal muscle and athletic performance’, JAAOS-Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 26(8), pp. 278-285.
Carswell, A. T. et al. (2018) ‘Influence of vitamin D supplementation by sunlight or oral D3 on exercise performance’, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 50(12), pp. 2555-2564.
Książek, A., Zagrodna, A., and Słowińska-Lisowska, M. (2019) ‘Vitamin D, skeletal muscle function and athletic performance in athletes — a narrative review’, Nutrients, 11(8), pp. 3-12.
Wiciński, M. et al. (2019) ‘Impact of vitamin D on physical efficiency and exercise performance — a review’, Nutrients, 11(11), pp. 1-10.